Information

The People of Bahrain - History


Bahrain

The majority of the people of Bahrain are natives of Bahrain. There are however large migrant communities, including 13% of the population that is Asian and 10% that comes from other Arab lands. Most of the people of Bahrain are Sh'ia Muslims. Approximately 25% are Sunni Muslims.

1990200020102016
Population, total (millions)0.50.661.241.43
Population growth (annual %)34.34.63.8
Surface area (sq. km) (thousands)0.70.70.80.8
Population density (people per sq. km of land area)718.7936.11,628.401,848.50
Income share held by lowest 20%........
Life expectancy at birth, total (years)72747677
Fertility rate, total (births per woman)3.72.82.22
Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)26181413
Contraceptive prevalence, any methods (% of women ages 15-49)54......
Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)..9899100
Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births)231398
Prevalence of underweight, weight for age (% of children under 5)6.3......
Immunization, measles (% of children ages 12-23 months)87989999
Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group)1039989100
School enrollment, primary (% gross)110.310594.9101.1
School enrollment, secondary (% gross)879893104
School enrollment, primary and secondary (gross), gender parity index (GPI)1111
Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49)0.10.10.10.1
Environment
Forest area (sq. km) (thousands)0000
Terrestrial and marine protected areas (% of total territorial area)0.10.7..1.7
Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (% of internal resources)4,672.50..5,967.50..
Urban population growth (annual %)3.34.34.63.9
Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita)10,55511,98910,20810,594
CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)25.0628.0523.5923.45
Electric power consumption (kWh per capita)15,62120,01518,03819,592

Indians in Bahrain

The history of Indians in Bahrain dates back to the time of the Dilmun civilisation in 3000 BCE when the civilisation served as a trade link between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilisation. [1] Proper immigration of Indians to Bahrain first started in the late quarter of the 19th century, with Banyan merchants arriving from British India or also known as British Raj under the jurisdiction of HM Government of the United Kingdom when it was under the rule of the British Empire. Today, Indians number at an estimated 400,000 people out of the country's total population of 1.3 million, making them the largest expatriate group in the country. [2]


I am extremely concerned about the situation of Bahrain. The people of Bahrain are being oppressed. Certain promises are made to them but these promises are not kept. The Bahraini nation is an innocent and oppressed nation. Of course any movement that is carried out for the sake of God and is driven by determination, will definitely achieve victory. This is true everywhere and Bahrain is not an exception. Aug 31, 2011

Of course, among the nations the people of Bahrain have been the most oppressed. This is because there has been a news blackout in the world on the issues of Bahrain. According to no human and global logic is their demand illegitimate. Their demand is legitimate, but they have been oppressed. They have been totally ignored by the media and they have even been the target of constant negative propaganda. Of course, this propaganda is futile and by Allah’s favor, the Bahraini people will achieve victory as well. Feb 3,2012

As an obvious example, notice that today all media companies of the world are trying to isolate the people of Bahrain and their movement. What is the reason? The reason is that the issue is a Shia-Sunni issue: they want to foment discord. They want to draw lines and separate Muslims. There is no difference between pious Muslims who have a tendency towards this or that Islamic denomination. Islam is the aspect that all of these denominations have in common. Unity of Islamic Ummah is the aspect that all of them have in common. The secret behind victory and the continuation of the movement is reliance on God, trust in Him and maintaining unity and cohesion. Jan 30, 2012

We expressed our view in a clear way. We were never intimidated by the frown of the so-called powers of the world. We did not pay attention to their frown, and we never will. We announce our righteous position in a clear way. The righteous position is that the people of Bahrain have the right to protest. You can discuss this with any insightful person in the world. Explain their situation to him. Explain the way the oppressed Bahraini people are being governed. Explain what the rulers did to take advantage of this small country. Then see if they condemn the ruling system or not. They are making a mistake: confronting the people is useless. You may pressure the people violently and manage to put down the uprising for a short time, but the uprising will not die out. You will further infuriate the people on a daily basis. One day you will lose control of the situation, and it will be impossible for you to set things right. They are making a mistake. Both the Bahraini government and those who send forces to Bahrain are making a serious mistake. They think they can annihilate a popular movement through these things. April 23, 2011


The history of the real Dilmun

From the fourth millennium to 800 BC, Dilmun was a significant trading center controlling the trading routes in the Gulf.

The country was at its most prosperous during the first 300 years of the second millennium. Between 1000 BC and 800 BC though, Dilmun started losing its commercial power due to the piracy which flourished in the Gulf around that time.

The ancient site of Qal’at al-Bahrain in the northwestern part of the island is considered to be the main harbor and the capital of Dilmun. This site features seven successive levels of settlement, and the oldest of them dates back to around 2300 BC.

It also features a unique sea tower, which probably functioned as a lighthouse. This unique example of ancient maritime architecture is the only one of its kind in the region, together with the adjacent sea channel this clearly demonstrates the significance of this city in trade routes.


The People of Bahrain - History

By Habeeb Salloum/Arab America Contributing Writer

The history of the Phoenicians is a study of a contradiction of a people who left a well-imprinted mark in the development of civilization. Throughout the centuries, every nation, tribe or scribe who came into contact with them, recounted their world of wonder and majesty.

What they created and their contribution to the development of humanity, this history is recorded. However, scholars have disagreed as to the origin of the Phoenicians, many claiming contrary theories. It is a battle of colonization, the West fighting the East, power, and politics, combining to create an atmosphere of misconception and doubt as to the origin of a people who gave us the alphabet – the greatest invention in the saga of man.

The last rewriting the history of the Phoenicians was by the French and its supporters in Syria and Lebanon. For hundreds of years, the people of today’s modern countries of Syria and Lebanon had lived as one people. That is not to say there was no conflict for the mountains of this ancient land had been a haven for many types of religious sects. Sometimes a despotic ruler persecuted a sect that was not to his liking. However, on the whole, one could say that the people lived in harmony if one is to take into consideration the vast number of these religious sects which existed in this land filled with history.

Long before their armies occupied Syria, the French had been active in pursuing a policy of preparing the way for bringing this country under their rule. No sooner had the last Crusader left the shores of Syria, then the French began to prepare for their return to the Levant. To pave the way they took upon themselves the task of offering to protect the Catholic Christian sects in the Greater Syria area.

Of course, if this protection was not needed, situations had to be created in order that these ancient Christian sects of the Middle East would call on France for help. The French missionary teachers were to be an excellent instrument for this policy. When Fakhr al-Din, a feudal lord in the mountains of Lebanon in the 17th century, rebelled against the Ottomans and created a state under his rule, he invited the Vatican to send teachers to his new country.

The French, who had been waiting for such an invitation was ready. They sent many priests to open Catholic schools and thus infuse the people with French culture. This was the first step in making their students ready for the day when the French would occupy the Greater Syria area. Later on, the Jesuit Order, which had been banned in France after the French Revolution, sent many of their people to the region thus ridding France of them while at the same time using them to serve France’ s foreign policy.

Not only were the people imbued with French culture but French policy looked further ahead into the future when France planned to control this part of the world. What better way to pave the way for domination than to divide the Christians of Greater Syria from their Muslim brethren by creating for them a history to make them believe they were a different people?

Hence, a history of the Phoenicians was created by the French in which these ancient people were portrayed as originating from Europe then immigrating to the land which is now Lebanon from where they created a brilliant civilization. The Christians of Greater Syria were taught that these European-Phoenicians were their ancestors and their Muslim brothers were a different people who came from the Arabian deserts.

When the French occupied Syria after the First World War, they divided Syria into five different countries with Lebanon as the main pivot of their control. After this, they instituted their version of Phoenician history as official policy in Lebanon. School books glorified this invented history of the Phoenicians and passed over Arab history as if it did not exist. Generations were brainwashed to think the Lebanese were a Phoenician people who had nothing in common with their Arab brethren.

The effect was devastating on the minds of the Lebanese, especially on the Christians. They came to think of themselves as superior to their Muslim Arab brethren and, since they were Europeans like their rulers, they had nothing in common with their neighbors. Anti-Arab Lebanese nationalism came into existence and this led, in the last quarter of the 20 th century, to a devastating civil war.

Many intellectuals in Lebanon saw the danger of this nationalism and attempted to correct the harm created. Two Lebanese writers, Hashim al-Madini and Muhammad Ali al-Zubi, co-authored an excellent book entitled The Muslims and Christians in Lebanon (Dar al- Ansar, 1952). In it they recorded a more factual history of the Phoenicians. I have translated a portion of this excellent Arabic book in order to give the English reader an insight into the factual history of these famous trading and seafaring people.

Below is a translation of a portion of their version of Phoenician history:

Archaeologists have uncovered in the Middle East many artifices which indicate that successive emigrations from the Arabian Peninsula have been made to Egypt, Iraq and the Greater Syria area since the dawn of history until our present day.

The English historian Phillip Van, the late learned scholar Muhammad Kurd Ali , the former president of the Damascus Arab Academy, the Andalusian historian Ahmad ibn Sa c d and Amir Maurice Shihab, Director of the Lebanese Department of Archaeology, all agree that the first people to emigrate from the Arabian Peninsula to what is now Lebanon, were the Canaanites who came in two waves.

The city of Beirut was established in 4000 B.C. by the first wave of these Canaanites and named Fakhidh Kanani ( a branch of Canaan) – indicating that this first wave of Canaanites settled on the Lebanese coast. Further, archaeologists have found ruins of other cities built by this first wave of Canaanites at about the same time.

The Arab historians, Amir Shakib Arsalan, Isa Maluf, and Dr. Philip Hitti, all write that after emigrating from the Arabian Peninsula this first wave of emigrants became known as Canaanites, a name derived from one of three Arabic words: kan, khana or khadha – all having the same meaning: ‘to bend down’ or ‘to be low’.

Hence, the first wave of emigrants was named Canaanites because they settled on the coastal lowlands of the Greater Syria coast. Their Semitic brothers who also came from the Arabian Peninsula and settled in the Syrian highlands came to be known as Aramaeans, from the old Arabic/Semitic word arm, found in the Bible and the Qur’an and meaning ‘lofty’ or ‘high’.

Historians consider the first wave of Canaanite emigration as a pathfinder for the second wave of Canaanites who later came to be known as Phoenicians. The name Phoenician was not what the second wave of Canaanites called themselves but it was given to them by the Greeks – a name derived from the Greek word, ponikijo, meaning ‘purple’. The Canaanites who had settled on the Syrian coastline were renowned for trading in both a purple dye and the colored fabrics produced with this dye.

The emigration of the second wave of Canaanites was not made during a short period of time but continued for 500 years, from 3000 B.C. to 2500 B.C. The famous archaeologist Arnot, discovered a statue of Astrate, the Canaanite or Phoenician goddess, in the first homeland of these people – the Arabian Peninsula. To be more precise, Arnot’s discovery of the statue took place amongst the ruins left by the Himyarite civilization of South Arabia.

Later, in the Chaldean ruins of Iraq, the same statue of this goddess was found indicating that the Chaldeans brought this goddess with them when they emigrated from the Arabian Peninsula to Iraq. In later centuries, the Canaanites or Phoenicians took this goddess with them to the coastal lands of the Syrian/Lebanese shores.

Strabon, a Greek traveler, and geographer who lived in the first century A.D., wrote that he saw with his own eyes in two Phoenician cities, Sur and Arwad, in Bahrain. Strabon goes on to relate that the inhabitants of these two cities talked to him about the journeys made by their forefathers to the Syrian coast.

These same stories are also confirmed by the great Greek traveler Herodotus four and a half centuries before the time of Strabon. He relates that when he visited the Temple of Baal-Melquart in Phoenicia, he asked the priests and men of knowledge about their first homeland. They all answered without hesitation: Bahrain.

The French historian, Lirchy, in his translation of the works of Herodotus, notes that when this Greek traveler talked about a people, he always tried to satisfy himself as to their origin and the former lands from where they came. Hence, his story about Phoenicia was not an isolated tale.

Francais Lenormand, a learned French writer, ascertained that the stories told by Herodotus relating to Phoenicia, the tales the inhabitants used to relate among themselves and the stories that were narrated by Strabon, generally conclude that the second wave of Canaanites emigrated from the Arabian Peninsula. They moved from Bahrain to al-Qatif in eastern Arabia then to Lebanon by way of Iraq.

The origins of these people were also attested to by the historian Trogh Bomby and the French writer René Dussaud, who, relying on the verification of the scholar Winkler, wrote that ‘the Arabian Peninsula was the first homeland of all the Semitic people who, after their departure from that Peninsula, became known under various names, such as Babylonians, Assyrians, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Syriacs, Chaldeans, Nabateans, etc. These two scholarly writers conclude, after much research, that the name ‘Arab’ is synonymous with the name ‘Semitic’.

The Adnani Arabs, who originated in the Arabian Peninsula, are without a doubt the Chaldeans. This historical fact is attested to by Father Anastas al-Karmali who wrote: ‘The Chaldeans and Assyrians originate from an ancient Arab named Kaldah and this name was not lost for we find this name among the companions of the Prophet. Even in our day, there is still a tribe in Hadhramaut in South Yemen called Chaldeans.’

Al-Karmali concluded after his in-depth study of Arabic, which he referred to as ‘the mother Semitic tongue’, that the ancient Arab peoples such as the Babylonians, Assyrians, Canaanites, and other tribes spoke only dialects of this language.

The scholarly priest Louis Rahmani also came to the same conclusion. He writes: ‘The languages that were spoken by the Semitic tribes, such as the Assyrians, Chaldeans, Babylonians, Phoenicians, Arameans, Syriacs, Nabateans, etc., all were one with different dialects and every dialect was named after the people who spoke it, but all are derived from the mother tongue Arabic. Just as in our present day, the dialects of the Egyptians, Iraqis, Syrians or Moroccans relate to the people who speak these Arabic dialects. For example, if historians discussed the dialect of Iraq in the past, they would say, for clarification, ‘the Babylonian’. The relationship of Babylonian to the modern Iraqi dialect is the same as Old English is to modern English’.

What we gain from the research of these scholars and what has been uncovered by archaeologists is that the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula from before the dawn of history until our era were and are one, with one language. If they are called at times ‘Semitic’ and at times ‘Arab’, it makes no difference for these are only synonymous names for the same people. As for the specific use of the word ‘Arab’ to designate only one of these Semitic tribes, this is due to general use and the evolution of this word throughout the centuries.

From the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula sprung the Iraqi, Yemeni, Lebanese, Syrian, Egyptian and the other Arab people of our day. Historians did not find any difference between the Aramean dialect of the Nabateans and Palmyreans – Aramaic being the language of Syria for twenty centuries – and the dialects of the other Arab tribes such as the Canaanites, Phoenicians, Syriacs, etc.

Scholars and archaeologists agree that the mother Semitic tongue of all these tribes that emigrated from the Arabian Peninsula was the Arabic language which has always been evolving until our era. Due to this development, historical researchers have found some differences between the language of the tribes which emigrated to the Fertile Crescent after the Islamic conquest, carrying the language of the Qur’an and the language of the tribes who had emigrated in the previous centuries.

The scholar, Father Lamens understood this when he wrote: ‘As for the people of Syria, their dialect is Aramean while the rest of the people speak an Arabic dialect somewhat different from the language of the Our’an. A great number of historians, western and eastern, ancient and modern, and many archaeologists all agree that the first homeland of the Phoenicians was the Arabian Peninsula where they were nomadic Arabs, knowing only their herds of animals and the nomadic way of life.

Their remains in al-Qatif in the Arabian Peninsula are well known and their settling for a time in Iraq is attested to by a tablet found in Tel al-Amarna in Egypt. The tablet contains a message from the king of the Phoenicians to the Pharaoh, their master, written in the Babylonian dialect which they had learned while in Babylon and continued to use when they settled on the Lebanese coast.”

Hashim al-Madini and Muhammad c Ali al-Zu c bi, are to be thanked for bringing to light the factual history of the Phoenicians. However, these two authors were not the only writers who asserted that the Phoenicians are Arabs like the brother Semite tribes. There were many others.

Sabatino Moscati, Professor of Semitic Philology at the University of Rome, in his book The World of the Phoenicians, (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1968), quotes Donald Harden who states that the Phoenicians were a part of the waves of migrating Semites who came from Arabia or the Arabian Gulf. Also, in his book Saga America, Dr. Barry Fell (Times Books, New York, 1983) makes an excellent case for the theory that the Punic North African inhabitants, the offspring of the Phoenicians, before the Islamic invasions, were the same people as the men who came carrying the banners of Islam – Arabs from the Arabian Peninsula.

If need be, one could quote many other historians to verify the origin of the Phoenicians, as being the same as that of the Arabs. There is no doubt that the Phoenicians were a part of the Arab tribes who, like their many other kingship tribes, merged with the conquering Arabs of the seventh century to create the Arab world we know today.

The Lebanese are a part of this world, no different than any other part. Not the Lebanese, but the Tunisians of our day, are the people who have the right to claim Phoenician pedigree. Long after Alexander the Great had destroyed the Phoenician cities on the Syrian/Lebanese coast, the Phoenician/Punic civilization of Carthage flourished. But it did not serve French interests to create a false Phoenician history for the Tunisians. Lebanon, with its many religious sects, was a much more fertile land where this false history could take root and flourish.


The People of Bahrain - History

Level Description Criteria
1 Unreached - Few evangelicals and few who identify as Christians. Little, if any, history of Christianity. Evangelicals - Few evangelicals, but significant number who identify as Christians. Evangelicals 5% and - Few evangelicals, but many who identify as Christians. In great need of spiritual renewal and commitment to biblical faith. Evangelicals 50%
4 Partially reached - Evangelicals have a modest presence. Evangelicals > 2% and - Evangelicals have a significant presence. Evangelicals > 10%

City
Symbol
City
Population ▲
City Type
1 Less than 10,000
1 Less than 10,000 Province capital
2 10,000 to 75,000
2 10,000 to 75,000 Province capital
3 75,000 to 200,000
3 75,000 to 200,000 Province capital
4 200,000 to 750,000
4 200,000 to 750,000 Province capital
5 750,000 to 2 million
5 750,000 to 2 million Province capital
6 Greater than 2 million
6 Greater than 2 million Province capital
7 Less than 200,000 National capital (3 sizes)
8 Greater than 200,000 National capital (3 sizes)
Cities are selected for reference. Many populated places do not appear for the sake of clarity. Maps feature larger, potential "gateway" cities related to each people group.
Lines Description
Blue Rivers
Gray solid Country borders
White solid State / Province borders
Gray dashed District borders

People Group Search

Sections

On a cluster of islands off the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia live the Bahraini Arabs, the largest people group in Bahrain. They call it Dawlat al Bahran (State of Bahrain). It includes over 30 desert islands in the heart of the Persian Gulf. Bahraini Arabs are related to the two million Arabs spread over the Middle East and North Africa, bound loosely together by a religious and cultural heritage. Arabs trace their ancestry back to Ishmael, the son of Abraham, and his wife's maid, Hagar. For centuries the Arabs lived as Bedouin tribesmen, like Abraham.

During the seventh century, the prophet Mohammed drew many of the Arab tribes together by giving them a common religion, Islam. The great majority of Bahrain's people are Arabs. They speak the traditional language of Arabic, although English is becoming more common. People on the main island, also called Bahrain, are more cosmopolitan than other Arabs.


What Are Their Lives Like?

Most Bahrainis live in apartments or houses in towns on the northern part of the largest island, Bahrain. Since wood is scarce, they build homes of cement and lime brick. These houses are usually tall with wind towers to catch the breeze. Villagers, on the other hand, usually live in thatched huts.

Even though the islands receive only 7.5 cm (3 inches) of rainfall a year, fresh underground springs along the northern coast of Bahrain provide ample drinking water. Farmers irrigate vegetables and melons from these springs. Families usually have one main meal daily, including many fresh vegetables, lamb, fish, and rice. Bahrainis enjoy a relatively high standard of living due to oil revenues. The government provides free education, medical care and a superior electrical system.

Most households have televisions, radios, and telephones. A causeway links several of the islands to Saudi Arabia. The Bahraini people are more cosmopolitan than other Arabs because Bahrain has been a trade center and port for centuries. Younger Bahrainis wear clothes reflecting Western influence. Bahrain's women have more opportunities and privileges than most Arabic women.

The majority of Bahraini Arabs follow Islam, the religion of their heritage and their culture. The ruling family and many townspeople are Sunni Muslims, while the Northern villagers are Shiites. Because the British ruled Bahrain for over a hundred years prior to 1971, two Anglican churches remain in Bahrain. Mainland Arabs criticize the Bahrainis for not being strict enough about traditional religious values. The women still prefer head coverings and long sleeves, but fewer wear traditional veils. More women are employed, usually at respectable jobs in girl's schools, maternity clinics, and banks.

More than most Arabs nations, Bahrain has grown increasingly open to Western influence. More than ever before the Bahraini Arabs are listening to new ideas and considering new perspectives on life. Nevertheless, their culture and Islamic religion are so closely bound together, that it is difficult for them to accept any other world view. They consider the moral values of Western Christians to be pagan.

Bahrain has capitalized on the petroleum industry since 1932. Fishing has declined due to pollution in the gulf. Bahrain is diversifying, building industry and becoming a banking center for the Middle East. Opportunities for foreign business mean opportunities for Christian business people to share the Gospel.

Television and radio programs are broadcast mostly in Arabic, although some English programs come out of Saudi Arabia. English Bibles, Christian literature, and programs can be used as long as they show sensitivity to the Arab culture. Promiscuity of the western culture has caused the Bahraini to be leery of Western Christians. Opportunities to reach them exist by taking a sensitive approach, stepping carefully through the open doors of a fast-growing business society.

* Scripture Prayers for the Arab, Bahraini in Bahrain.

* Pray for open hearts among Arabs, including the Bahrainis.
* Pray that Bahrain will be used as a gateway for the Gospel into all of Arabia.
* Pray for ministries to begin to focus on the Bahrainis and that a burden will be placed on hearts specifically for them. They cannot hear if the Word is not going forth.
* Pray that God will raise spiritual leaders among Arabian Christians.
* Pray that Bahraini businessmen will come to know Jesus and be used of God in this rapidly growing banking economy.
* Pray for these Arabs and that intimidation will not keep them from receiving Jesus.
* Pray for strong Christian fellowships to be birthed in the days ahead.


Pearling Economy

The oyster beds on the north of Bahrain were the centre of a natural pearl fishery that dominated the Arabian Gulf from at least the 3rd century BC until the early 20th century. Exploding demand for pearls beginning in the 19th century produced a single product economy in Bahrain, centred in its then capital and the capital of Arabian Gulf pearling, Muharraq.

Pearl exports contributed three quarters of Bahrain’s total exports in 1877, with most destined for Bombay, Persia and Turkey. Europe emerged as a major direct market for Bahrain’s pearl exports following the turn of the century, and by 1904-05 an estimated 97.3 per cent of the Gulf’s turnover in pearls was traded through Bahrain. The value of Bahrain’s pearl exports increased six fold between 1900 and 1912, when Indian merchants were joined in Bahrain by others from Paris, London and New York, all vying to secure the finest pearls at source.

Bahrain’s annual pearl fishery was a community-wide endeavour: from pearling merchants, divers and dhow captains to boat builders, timber merchants and general goods suppliers, nearly every profession found in Muharraq city existed to serve the pearling economy.

The pearling economy reached its apex in 1911-12, after which a series of catastrophes including wars, price crashes, the arrival of cheap cultivated pearls, the Wall Street crash and its impact on the market for luxury goods, and riots by divers aggrieved at the loss of income, all led to the decline in the 1930s and ultimately total collapse of the industry by 1950.

Pearl jewellery has been an object of intense desire since ancient times. Pierced pearls as items of jewellery dating to around 5,000 BC have been found at coastal sites in the Arabian Gulf region.

The enduring allure of lustrous natural pearls and pearl jewellery is unmatched. Natural pearl necklaces and earrings are depicted in the works of the Renaissance masters, and the use of natural pearls as ornaments in crowns and tiaras, hair adornments and brooches through the ages illustrate their universal appeal. Siyadi Shops, owned by Siyadi family who were famous for pearl merchandise, were the centre for production and sale of pearl jewellery in Bahrain during the pearling era.

Up until the turn of the 20th century, most Bahrain pearls were exported to Bombay, where they were classed, matched and drilled before being resold. Later leading French, British and American jewellers began to visit Bahrain to secure the finest pearls at source. Among them was Jacques Cartier, who visited Bahrain to select natural pearls for his exceptional jewellery, initiating a relationship between Cartier and Bahrain that endures to this day. The Pearl Museum, which will be hosted in Siyadi Majlis, will showcase a selection of jewellery pieces, including Bahraini pearls on a long-term loan from Cartier’s archival collection, alongside historic and contemporary pearl jewellery from Bahrain.

The millennia-long tradition of crafting fine jewellery with natural Bahrain pearls is still being continued in Bahrain by a handful of artisans. Bahrain prohibits the import or trade of cultured pearls, and boasts a state-of-the-art pearl testing laboratory to ensure every pearl sold in Bahrain is natural.

Pearling activities were dependent on an intricate system of trade and support industries that furbished the dhows with the supplies required for the diving season (al-ghus al-kabir). Several families in Bahrain were single-handedly relying on the income generated from the supply industries, which was enough to sustain a middle-class or an upper middle-class family. Yousif Abdulrahman Fakhro and Mahmood Mohammed Al-Alawi were among those, who gained economic strength through the supply trade. ‘Amarat complex located within the Muharraq Suq and Fakhro House are the components testifying to the wealth and economic power, brought by the pearling economy. Al-Alawi House, an urban component of the World Heritage site, depicts how the wealth deriving from supply trade impacted the architecture of a middle class merchant’s house.

The supplies consisted of maintenance equipment for the dhows, gear for the divers, fresh water and food. Water for drinking and cooking was stored in large wooden tanks on board the sea-going pearling dhows. If a boat’s water supply became exhausted, fresh water could be obtained from one of the many underwater springs in the Gulf, or alternately be delivered, together with food resources, by special supply boats operated by local merchants. In addition to water, the supply boats also provided coffee, dates, rice, and tobacco.

On land, storehouses (‘amarat) offered a wide range of merchandise, including hardware, equipment for boat building and, in later years, general goods such as building materials, textiles and groceries. Especially in Muharraq, the storehouses developed a high level of specialisation.

Al Alawi House, 2016, Camille Zakharia

The pearling crews formed a cohesive unit that included a variety of professions working side-by-side on board the dhows. Among these were the diver (ghīs) the hauler (sīb) a young assistant to the hauler (ridhīf) a multipurpose helper, usually aged between 9 and 13 (tabbab) the captain’s best mate and second-in- command (mjaddimi) and the captain (nukhidhah). On land, the pearl merchants (tawawish) assisted in the sale and trade of the pearls to regional and global markets.

Many of the men among the dhow crews started out in pearling as young tabbab. The responsibilities of these youthful assistants included serving, collecting water from the springs, fetching coals, and washing the clothes of the crew. After a few years of training, a tabbab could become a ridhīf. With time, as he gained in strength and experience, he could begin work as a hauler or a diver. The diver collected the oysters from the sea bed. A hauler not only pulled the diver up from the depths of the sea, but also rowed and set the sails of the dhows. The captain of the ship (nukhidhah) mapped the course for that season and oversaw the care of his crew. Al-Ghus House and Nukhidhah House are among the ones to visit to gain a perception on how the pearling crew members’ living spaces looked like.

Pearl diving in Muharraq and most other Arabian Gulf settlements was financed by a chain of loans made to the crews. The primary lenders were leading merchants, who extended advances to the captains, who in turn would use the money to maintain, equip and provision the boats, and also to advance a variety of loans to the divers to support their families. If, by the end of the season, the crew’s catch did not score favourably, the crew would take a loss and their debt would carry over to the following season. Until the pearling reforms of the 1920s, a diver’s or hauler’s next of kin would inherit his unpaid debts.

The loans system was closely regulated by customary law, as were the returns due to the creditor. Three types of loans were made to the pearling crews. The first (tisqam), was taken for the off-season, two months after the end of the main dive, for the maintenance of the haulers and divers and their family. The second loan (salaf), was taken at the start of the dive, to maintain the families of the diver during his absence. Thirdly, there was a mid-season loan (kharjiyyah), taken if necessary to supplement the salaf, or in the event that extra money was required to support the boat during the dive. Additionally, there were various ways of arranging payment of the loans by the financier and delivering him a profit while avoiding the Islamic prohibition on charging interest.

Socio-political matters of pearling were administered and contested within a system of jurisprudence that provided an important legal basis for social relations and financial transactions of the time. Initially, such affairs were addressed in community gatherings (majlis), usually held at the meeting or gathering place (majlis) of a prominent trader or figure within the community. All of these majlis were open to the public, and often played a role in dispute arbitration. This system was later supplemented by modern developments in the judiciary. The Salifah Court was an institution established to rule on disputes, in particular financial disputes, between the pearling crew members and the captains.


What are the advantages of closer ties?

Israel and the gulf Arab states began establishing tentative links after the Oslo peace accords between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1993. They opened trade missions in each other’s capitals, though several were closed after a surge of Israeli-Palestinian violence in the second Intifada, which erupted in 2000.

The links grew stronger in the past decade as the Israelis and gulf Arabs made common cause over Iran, which both sides view as a dire threat. In 2015, the United Arab Emirates allowed Israel to establish a diplomatic presence at the International Renewable Energy Agency in Abu Dhabi. Qatar has worked with Israel to broker a cease-fire in the Hamas-dominated enclave of Gaza. The sultanate of Oman played host to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in 2018.

For the gulf states, Israel is a hedge against the declining role of the United States in the region, as well as a rich trading partner with a high-tech economy. For Israel, ties to the gulf ease its isolation and are a way to counter pressure from the Palestinians to negotiate a new state, since the backing of fellow Arabs is a linchpin of that long campaign.


India

India ranks as number one for the most racist country of all countries included in the study. Located in Southern Asia, India has roughly 1.3 billion people. The most prevalent ethnicities in India are people of Tamil, Nepali, Gujarati, Bengali, Marathi, Punjabi, Malayalam, and Kashmiri descent. These ethnic groups are all ones that originate in India, meaning that most of the people who live in India are Indians themselves.

Unlike countries like the United States that are founded on the basic principle of cultural differences and a mixing pot, if you will, India is home to people originally from the country -- as opposed to having a population comprised of immigrants who moved to the country from elsewhere later on in their lives. This detail is a huge contributing factor as to why India has been named the most racist country over the years. Approximately 43.6% of all Indian people who took the survey said that they would not be comfortable with neighbors who were of different cultures, ethnicities, or races than themselves. A high percentage of 64.3% of Indian participants also reported that they were either discriminated against or witnessed discrimination unfold in their home country.

India is a country with a population with little diversity in terms of nationality. Most people identify as Indians, though their ethnicities can differ depending upon the area of India in which they reside or were born. Either way, if you are not used to seeing or interacting with people of different races, then it might be a bit of a cultural shock to suddenly be asked to envision yourself being neighbors with someone of a different nationality than yours.


Bahrain

Here is a list of famous people from Bahrain. Curious if anybody from Bahrain made it our most famous people in the world list? Read the aformentioned article in order to find out.

Frank Turner

Frank Turner is an English folk/punk singer-songwriter from Meonstoke, Hampshire. Initially the vocalist of post-hardcore band Million Dead, Turner embarked upon a primarily acoustic-based solo career following the band's split in 2005. Both in the studio and during live performances, Turner is accompanied by his backing band, The Sleeping Souls, which consists of Ben Lloyd, Tarrant Anderson, Matt Nasir and Nigel Powell. To date, Turner has released five solo albums, two rarities compilation albums, One split album and five EPs. Turner's fifth studio album, Tape Deck Heart was released on 22 April 2013.

Mamta Mohandas

Mamta Mohandas is an Indian film actress and playback singer. She has mainly acted in Malayalam films, besides few Telugu and Tamil productions and one Kannada film. She has won two Filmfare Awards, for Best Female Playback Singer in Telugu in 2006 and for Best Actress in Malalayam in 2010.

Zainab Al Askari

Zainab Al-Askari is a Bahraini actress, spokesmodel and model popular in the Persian Gulf. She has starred in and produced several shows for television shows in the Gulf. Although a Bahraini national who has acted in several Bahraini productions, she has appeared as one of the main characters in several Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian TV shows as well,she is also a Spokesmodel for Parachute in the Persian Gulf.

Nabeel Rajab

Nabeel Ahmed Abdulrasool Rajab is a Bahraini human rights activist and opposition leader. He is president of the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights. He is also a prominent international human rights activist. He is a member of the Advisory Committee of Human Rights Watch's Middle East Division, Deputy Secretary General for the International Federation for Human Rights, former chairman of CARAM Asia, member of the Advisory Board of the Bahrain Rehabilitation and Anti-Violence Organization, and president of Gulf Center for Human Rights. Rajab started his human rights activity during the 1990s uprising before going on to become involved in campaigning on behalf of migrant workers in GCC countries. He subsequently became a leading campaigner against civil and human rights abuses in Bahrain including torture and deaths in official custody. He is known for his pioneering use of social networking as an important element in human rights campaigning which has brought him into conflict with the authorities. Front Line Defenders, Human Rights Watch and Reporters Without Borders have described him as being targeted by Bahraini authorities for his human rights activities.

Hala El Turk

Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa

Prince Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Crown Prince of Bahrain is the heir apparent and First Deputy Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Bahrain. He is also the deputy Supreme Commander of the Bahrain Defense Force.

Hussain Ali Baba

Hussain Ali Baba Mohamed is a Bahraini footballer currently playing for Kuwait SC in Kuwaiti Premier League and the Bahrain national football team. His national team number is #17.

Shaila Sabt

Shaila Sabt is an Bahraini beauty pageant titleholder and actress who was crowned Bahrain Top Model 2010. She will be represent Bahrain in the Miss Universe 2013 pageant.

Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa

Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa has been the Prime Minister of Bahrain from 1970, taking office nearly two years before Bahrain's independence on 16 December 1971. He is the longest-serving current prime minister in the world. He still retains his post, although under the 2002 Constitution he has lost some of his power on paper, with the King having the authority to appoint and dismiss ministers. He is the uncle of the reigning King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa.

Meriam Al Khalifa

Meriam Al Khalifa is a distant member of the Bahraini royal House of Al-Khalifa. She is known for eloping with a US Marine to the United States, and claiming that she feared honor violence by her family in retaliation. Her story was featured heavily in the American press, including The Oprah Winfrey Show, and was turned into a television movie.

Amr ibn Kulthum

Amr ibn Kulthum Ibn Malik Ibn A`tab Abu Al-Aswad al-Taghlibi, a knight and the leader of the Taghlib tribe which was in Al-Forat island and was famous for its glory, bravery and merciless behavior in battle. Arabs in the past would say in remembrance of the Taghlib "People were about to be eradicated by the Taghlabs, except for the appearance of Islam".

Hamad Al Fardan

Hamad Al Fardan is a Bahraini racing driver. He is the first Bahraini to drive at GP2 Series level.

Sabika bint Ibrahim Al Khalifa

Sabika bint Ibrahim Al Khalifa is the Queen consort of Bahrain as the first wife of the present King of Bahrain, Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa, and the mother of the Crown Prince, Salman ibn Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa.

Kitty Aldridge

Kitty Aldridge is a British actress and writer.

Carrie Gracie

Carrie Gracie is a Scottish journalist and newsreader for BBC News.

Nasser bin Hamad Al Khalifa

Nasser bin Hamad Al Khalifa is a member of the Bahraini royal family and the commander of Bahrain's Royal Guard and president of the Bahrain Olympic Committee.

Abdul Amir al-Jamri

Sheikh Abdul Amir al-Jamri was one of the most prominent Shia clerics and opposition leaders in Bahrain. He was also a writer and a poet. Born in the village of Bani Jamra, al-Jamri became a Hussaini khatib after finishing primary school. At the age of 21, he began his Islamic studies, first in Bahrain and later in the religious institute of Al Najaf, Iraq, where he remained for 11 years. He returned to Bahrain in 1973 and was elected to the newly formed parliament. The parliament was dissolved two years later by the Emir, Isa bin Salman al-Khalifa, after it had rejected the State Security Law. In 1977, al-Jamri was appointed as a judge at the High Religious Court of Bahrain. He held the position until 1988, when he was briefly arrested due to his criticism of the government. Al-Jamri is most notable for his role during the 1990s uprising in Bahrain. The leader of the opposition, he succeeded in bringing Islamists, liberals and leftists together against the monarchy. The events began in the form of petitions in 1992 and 1994 calling for restoration of the parliament and reinstatement of the suspended constitution, but led to widespread violence and the death of 40 individuals. Due to his civil rights activity, al-Jamri was imprisoned between April and September 1995, before being arrested again in January 1996 and imprisoned until July 1999, which was followed by a year and a half of house arrest.

Abdulhadi al-Khawaja

Abdulhadi Abdulla Hubail al-Khawaja is one of the most prominent Bahraini-Danish human rights activists. He is currently in prison in Bahrain following the repression on pro-democracy protests in the Bahraini uprising. He is former president and co-founder of the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights, a nonprofit non-governmental organisation which works to promote human rights in Bahrain. He has held a number of positions and played various roles in regional and international human rights organizations. On 9 April 2011, al-Khawaja was arrested and tried as part of a campaign of repression by the Bahraini authorities following pro-democracy protests in the Bahraini uprising. Front Line Defenders expressed fear for his life following allegations of torture and sexual assault in detention. Al-Khawaja was sentenced on 22 June 2011, along with eight other activists, to life imprisonment. On 8 February 2012, he started an open-ended hunger strike until "freedom or death", protesting continuing detentions in Bahrain. The strike lasted for 110 days, and resulted in his being force-fed by authorities. Until February 2011, al-Khawaja was the Middle East and North Africa Protection Coordinator with Front Line Defenders &ndash the International Foundation for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders. He is also a member of the International Advisory Network in the Business and Human Rights Resource Center chaired by Mary Robinson, former UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.

Hussain Najadi

Hussain Najadi was an international banker born in Bahrain from parents of Persian origin. He was the Chairman & CEO ofAIAK Groupbased in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ali Salman

Ali Salman Ahmed Salman is the Secretary-General of the Al-Wefaq political society in Bahrain. He is a Twelver Shi'a cleric educated in Qom. In January 1995 the Bahraini government forcibly exiled him to Dubai for leading a popular campaign demanding the reinstatement of the constitution and the restoration of parliament during the 1990s Uprising. From there he made his way to London and sought asylum. He continued opposition activities from London, where he was associated with the Bahrain Freedom Movement. Salman returned to Bahrain in March 2001 in a general amnesty as part of a set of political reforms announced by King Hamad. Within Al Wefaq he is considered the 'moderate' public face of the organization, and has opposed the more confrontational approach with the authorities of other leaders.

Ismail Abdul-Latif

Ismail Abdul-Latif is a Bahraini football striker and currently plays for Al Ahli SC. Abdul-Latif also plays for the Bahrain national football team, and appeared for the team in the 2007 AFC Asian Cup and 2011 AFC Asian Cup finals. He is famous for scoring a dramatic injury time goal in the match against Saudi Arabia on 9 September 2009 that sent Bahrain into the 2010 World Cup Qualification final play-off round against New Zealand.

Fatima Abdul raheem

Fatima Abdul raheem 1975 is a Bahraini actress began her through youth theater in 1989 and is still going on in the Representation field where she made serials, plays and several movies.

Isa Qassim

Ayatollah Sheikh Isa Ahmed Qassim is Bahrain's leading Shia cleric and a politician. He is the spiritual leader of Al Wefaq, Bahrain's biggest opposition society. He was the leader and is the founders of Islamic Enlightenment institution.

Mohamed Husain

Mohamed Husain Bahzad is a Bahraini football defender.

Abdurahman Khadr

Abdurahman Khadr is a Canadian citizen who was held as an enemy combatant in extrajudicial detention in the United States Guantanamo Bay detainment camps, in Cuba, after being detained in 2002 in Afghanistan under suspicion of connections to Al-Qaeda. He later claimed to have been an informant for the CIA, which the agency declined to comment on when asked for confirmation by the United States' PBS news program Frontline. He is the third child and second son of Ahmed Khadr, a prominent Canadian who was noted for his charity work in Pakistan and Afghanistan, as well as for alleged ties to terrorists and al-Qaeda. His younger brother Omar Khadr was captured by United States forces separately at the age of 15 in Afghanistan in 2002 during a firefight he was also held in Guantanamo.

Khaled El Sheikh

Khaled El Sheikh, or Khalid Al-Shaikh, born in Bahrain on 23 September 1958 is a Bahraini singer. Married with 5 daughters. Honored in 12th Bahrain International Musical Festival on 14 October 2003. Honored by Culture & Arts Directorate, Ministry of Information for best music and sound effects for Akhbar AlMajnoon play on 6 July 2005.

Khalid bin Ahmed Al Khalifa

Khalid bin Ahmad Al Khalifa is the Foreign Minister of Bahrain. A graduate of the St. Edward's University, Sheikh Khalid is only the second foreign minister in Bahrain's history.

Ayat al-Ghermezi

Ayat Hassan Mohammed Al-Qurmezi is a poet and student at the University of Bahrain Teaching Institute in Bahrain. Al-Qurmezi became famous in Bahrain and internationally after reading out a poem criticising Bahraini government policies to the Pearl Roundabout gathering of pro-democracy protesters. After the poem was widely circulated via social media she and her family were subjected to harassment and death threats. She was arrested and detained in conditions of secrecy, and rumours of her death in custody led to protests by Iranian activists. She was subjected to torture while in custody but was eventually tried on charges of inciting hatred of the Bahraini regime and insulting members of the royal family. International human rights organisations described her detention and trial as illustrating the brutality of the Bahraini authorities. She was sentenced to a term of imprisonment, which she was allowed to serve under house arrest.

Sayed Mohammed Jaffer

Sayed Mohammed Jaffer is a Bahraini footballer currently playing with Muharraq of Bahrain and the Bahrain national football team.

Husain Ali

Husain Ali Ahmed is a Bahraini football player known as Husain Pele. Currently playing for Muharraq Club of Bahrain and the Bahrain national football team, he was top goalscorer in the Bahraini premier league in 1998 & 2003.

Ali Abdulhadi Mushaima

Ali Abdulhadi Saleh Jafar Mushaima was a 21-year-old Bahraini who on Monday 14 February 2011, the so-called "Bahraini Day of Rage", became the first fatality of the Bahraini Uprising. He died on his way to hospital from injuries he received when he was hit in the back by birdshot pellets fired from close range by security forces. during the Bahraini uprising. According to Nabeel Rajab, head of Bahrain Centre for Human Rights, Mushaima was participating in a protest in Al Daih, in Manama's outskirt, when he was shot. In a rare televised speech the King of Bahrain, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, announced that the deaths of Ali Abdulhadi Mushaima and Fadhel Al-Matrook would be investigated. Bahrain's Interior Minister said that legal steps would be taken if the use of the weapon had been unwarranted. Details of the investigation were disclosed in the report of the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry, established by King Hamad to look into events in the Bahraini uprising. The investigation failed to identify any culprits in the killing of Mushaima. The Commission concluded that Mushaima's death resulted from the "use of excessive force by police officers," and "that there was no justification for the use of lethal force."

Mahdi Al Tajir

Mahdi Al Tajir is an Emirati businessman based in the United Kingdom. Al Tajir spends much of his time at his London home or at Keir House, his 18,000-acre Perthshire estate. He has interests in finance and property, and owns the Highland Spring bottled water company. Al Tajir was named Scotland's richest man with a wealth of £1.5 billion in the Sunday Times Rich List 2010.

Mohamed Salmeen

Mohamed Ahmed Youssef Salmeen is a Bahraini footballer currently playing for Muharraq Club and the Bahrain national football team. He is the captain of the Bahrain National team. He wears the famous number 10 jersey for his club and country. Mohamed Salmeen is the son of legendary Bahraini footballing hero Ahmed Salmeen. Salmeen has participated in three world cup qualifying campaigns to date, and is currently one of the most experienced players in the Bahrain squad. He played in Qatar from 2004 to 2007 with Al-Arabi.

Mansoor al-Jamri

Mansoor al-Jamri is a Bahraini columnist, author, human rights activist and former opposition leader. He is the editor-in-chief of Al-Wasat, an Arabic language independent daily newspaper. He is also the second son of the Shia spiritual leader Sheikh Abdul-Amir al-Jamri, who died in 2006. Few months after he was born in the village of Bani Jamra, al-Jamri moved with his family to Iraq where his father continued his religious studies. To his delight, al-Jamri returned to Bahrain in 1973 and five years later graduated from high school. In 1979 he moved to the United Kingdom to continue his higher education. Between 1987 and 2001, al-Jamri lived in self-imposed exile in UK where he became the spokesman of the opposition group, Bahrain Freedom Movement. Following a series of reforms of which he was initially skeptical of, al-Jamri returned to Bahrain in December 2001. He co-founded Al-Wasat in September 2002 and became its editor-in-chief since then. The newspaper, said to be the only one offering independent and non-sectarian coverage in Bahrain was a success, becoming the country's most popular and profitable. Al-Jamri writes daily columns described to be moderate and non-sectarian.

Ayad Al Adhamy

Ayad Al Adhamy is an American multi-instrumentalist, producer and record label owner based in Brooklyn New York. He is the former synthesizer, sample, and percussion player of Passion Pit, and shared remix duties with Nate Donmoyer and Ian Hultquist. He currently fronts the Brooklyn garage rock outfit Team Spirit, signed to Vice Records/Warner Bros. Records. They released their Self Titled Debut EP on April 4, 2013, and it was received positively. Coupled with the EP, is an ongoing extreme-animated series of music videos, created by Swedish Animation Duo HannesJohannes about ". the idea of Damnation and Salvation." In 2010, Ayad Al Adhamy, started Black Bell Records, an independent record label that released the debut EP of The Joy Formidable and singles by Dom, Girlfriends, Pretty & Nice and Reptar. Full Length releases include Secret Music, Stepdad and Guards. Ayad Al Adhamy is an alumnus of the Berklee College of Music. He is an official endorsed artist of Moog, Dave Smith and Korg instruments.

Abdullah bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa

Abdullah bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa is the second son of the present King of Bahrain, Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah and his first wife, Sabika bint Ibrahim Al Khalifa. Like all members of the royal family, Abdullah sits as a senior member of the civil judiciary. Furthermore Abdullah has a personal love of music, and has fitted his palace in the Kingdom with a recording studio. He also has homes in Kensington, London and has a cottage in Devon, England. Musically he enjoys Led Zeppelin and Bob Marley, owns a vintage Gibson electric guitar, and rides a Harley Davidson.

Hasan Mushaima

Hasan Mushaima is an opposition leader in Bahrain and the secretary-general of the Haq Movement, an important opposition party in Bahrain. He is campaigning for more democratic rights in Bahrain. Before forming Haq, he was a founding member of Al Wefaq and a leading figure in the 1994 uprising in Bahrain. The Bahraini government has placed Mushaima under arrest several times, twice arresting him during the 1994 uprising. He was later jailed from March 1995 to September 1995 and again from January 1996 till February 2001. Mushaima was re-arrested in February 2007 and jailed for one day, and then was arrested and imprisoned again from January 2009 to April 2009. In 2010 Mushaima traveled to Great Britain to be treated for lung cancer. Mushaima announced plans to return to Bahrain during the protests in February 2011, but authorities detained him in Lebanon while en route, possibly at the request of the Bahraini government. Mushaima finally did return to Bahrain on Saturday, February 26, 2011. On that day, he was described by the Associated Press as being "welcomed like a rock star," by protestors in Pearl Square. On 7th March, 2011, Mushaima alongside with Abdulwahab Hussain, the leader of Wafa movement and Saeed Alshehabi the leader of the Bahrain Freedom Movement, formed the " Alliance for the Republic ", because of their belief that the Bahraini regime lost legitimacy after the harsh crackdown on protesters using heavy weapons. One months after protests, the Gulf Cooperation Council sent 1,500+ PSF troops to crush the popular uprising there and also sent the Kuwaiti Navy to stop any aid to the protesters by sea. After the protesters were kicked from the Pearl Roundabout, many known rights activists operating in Bahrain were arrested, including Mushaima.

Mahmood Abdulrahman

Mahmood Abdulrahman, also known as Ringo, is a Bahraini footballer. He currently plays for Al Shamal Sports Club as well as the Bahrain national football team. He was named Player of the tournament when AlMuharraq won the 2008 AFC Cup. Abdulrahman has made several appearances for the Bahrain national football team, including 14 2010 FIFA World Cup qualifying matches. Ringo re-joined Muharraq again at 2010, and won the 2010-11 Bahraini Premier League.

Isa Ali Abdullah al Murbati

Issa Ali Abdullah al Murbati is a citizen of Bahrain who was held in extrajudicial detention in the United States Guantanamo Bay detainment camps, in Cuba. Al Murbati's Guantanamo Internment Serial Number was 52. American counter-terrorism analysts estimate he was born in 1965, in Manama, Bahrain.

Ali Jawad al-Sheikh

Ali Jawad al-Sheikh was a 14-year-old Bahraini who died in the hospital on 31 August 2011 after reportedly being hit in the head by a tear gas canister shot by Bahraini security forces during the Bahraini uprising. The Bahraini government denied security force involvement in his death and offered a reward for information on the incident. Activists, however, began a series of large protests after his funeral.

Elizabeth Willis

Elizabeth Willis is an American poet and literary critic. She currently serves as the Shapiro-Silverberg professor of literature and creative writing at Wesleyan University. Willis has won several awards for her poetry including the National Poetry Series and the Guggenheim Fellowship. Susan Howe has called Elizabeth Willis "an exceptional poet, one of the most outstanding of her generation."

Talal Yousef

Talal Yousif Mohammed, known mainly as Talal Yousif, is a Bahraini footballer. He currently plays for Al-Riffa. Yousif plays mainly as an offensive midfielder and sometimes as a striker. He is currently retired from playing with the Bahrain national football team, where he made 21 appearances in FIFA World Cup qualifying matches.

Jamal Rashid

Jamal Rashid Rahman is a Bahraini footballer. He currently plays for Al-Nahda and the Bahrain national football team.

Salman Bin Ibrahim Al-Khalifa

Sheikh Salman Bin Ibrahim Al Khalifa is the President of the Asian Football Federation since 2 May 2013. Before his election as the president of AFC, he was president of Bahrain Football Association and also Chairman of the Asian Football Confederation Disciplinary Committee, and Deputy Chairman of the FIFA Disciplinary Committee.

Abdulla Al Marzooqi

Abdullah Al Marzooqi is a Bahraini footballer.

Humood Sultan

Humood Sultan Mathkoor is a former Bahraini football goalkeeper. He spent his career at Muharraq Club and was a key member of his team's successes in the 1980s and 1990s.

Al-Akhfash al-Akbar

Abu al-Khaṭṭāb ʻAbd al-Ḥamīd ibn ʻAbd al-Majīd, commonly known as Al-Akhfash al-Akbar was a notable Arab grammarian. A non-Arab from Bahrain, he lived in Basra and associated with the method of Arabic grammar of its linguists, and was a client of the Qais tribe. His most notable students were: Sibawayh, Yunus ibn Habib, Abu 'Ubaida, Abu Zayd al-Ansari and Al-Asma'i. Al-Akhfash revised his student Sibawayh's famous Kitab, the first book ever written on Arabic grammar, and was responsible for circulating the first manuscripts after his student's untimely death. Al-Akhfash was also one of the first linguists to contribute significantly to commentary and analysis of Arabic poetry. Additionally, he contributed extensively to Arabic philology as well as lexicography, recording vocabulary and expressions of the Bedouin tribes which had not previously been recorded.

Qassim Haddad

Qassim Haddad is a Bahraini poet, particularly notable within the Arab world for his free verse poetry. His poems have been translated in several languages including German, English and French.

Salman Isa

Salman Isa Ghuloom, known to many as just Salman Isa, is a Bahraini footballer that plays as a winger or a wingback. He is currently contracted by Al Riffa.

Mahmood Al Ajmi

Mahmood Merza Mahdi Ahmed Al Ajmi is a Bahraini football player who currently plays for KF Tirana in the Albanian Superliga and the Bahrain national team.

Faisal bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa

Faisal bin Hamad Al Khalifa was a member of the Bahrain's ruling family House of Khalifa.

Ibrahim Sharif

Ibrahim Sharif al-Sayed is an opposition political activist in Bahrain, currently serving as the General Secretary of the secular liberal National Democratic Action Society. He succeeded former General Secretary Abdulrahman al-Nuaimi, who fell into a coma in April 2007 and died in 2011. Sharif was formerly associated with the underground leftist Popular Front for the Liberation of Bahrain. Sharif is a Sunni Muslim. On 17 March 2011, Sharif was arrested in his home in Manama for his role in the Bahraini uprising, which called for greater political freedom and for the rights of the Shia majority. Shortly after, Amnesty International reported allegations that he was being tortured by state security forces while in detention. The organization named him a prisoner of conscience, and called for his immediate release. On 22 March 2011, the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of Bahrain announced a decision to revoke all licenses from Bahraini telecom firm 2Connect, of which more than 10 percent was owned by Sharif as of 22 March 2011. According to the Gulf Daily News, rumors of the suspension had been circulating since 14 March 2011, although the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority had initially denied these rumors. In a statement to the Gulf Daily News on 23 March 2011, founder and managing director Fahad Shirawi revealed that the company had initiated a process to ensure that the company was 100% owned by himself, a group of Saudi investors, and the employees. The decision to revoke 2Connect's licenses was reversed on 13 April 2011. Also on 13 April 2011, 2Connect released a statement saying that Shirawi was stepping down from his position as managing director and leaving 2Connect after seven years of service, for personal reasons.

Salman Ebrahim Mohamed Ali Al Khalifa

Salman Ebrahim Mohamed Ali Al Khalifa is a citizen of Bahrain who was held in extrajudicial detention in the United States Guantanamo Bay detention camps, in Cuba. The Department of Defense reports that Al Khalifa was born on July 24, 1979, in Rifah, Bahrain. He is a member of the Al Khalifa royal family of Bahrain, related to the king of Bahrain. Al Khalifa is a second cousin of the King of Bahrain. Al Khalifa, like the other Bahrainis held in Guantanamo, has Joshua Colangelo-Bryan as his lawyer. Following his repatriation to Bahrain Al Khalifa was appointed to high level posts overseeing Bahrain's amateur sports.

Thuraya AlArrayed

Thuraya AlArrayed: is an Arabic language Saudi poet and writer she was born in 1948, and received a bachelor's degree from the College of Beirut, in 1966, and then an MBA from American University of Beirut in 1969 and PhD from the University of North Carolina, United States General in 1975.

Mohamed Hubail

Mohamed Hubail is a Bahraini footballer who was sentenced to a two year term of imprisonment by a special security court in Bahrain after taking part in pro-democratic reform protests in Bahrain in 2011.

Abdulwahab Al Safi

Abdulwahab Al Safi is Bahraini footballer. He is playing for foreign team Al-Qadisiyah in Saudi Professional League. He plays as a midfielder. He was called to Bahrain national football team at 2011 AFC Asian Cup, hosted Qatar.

Abdullatif bin Rashid Al Zayani

Abdullatif bin Rashid Al Zayani is a Bahraini engineer and retired lieutenant general. He has been the secretary general of the Gulf Cooperation Council since 1 April 2011. He is the fifth GCC secretary general and the first with military background since the GCC established.

Abdulla Majid Al Naimi

Born on March 9, 1982, in Manama, Bahrain, Abdulla Majid Al Naimi is a Bahraini, formerly held in extrajudicial detention in the United States Guantanamo Bay detention camps, in Cuba.

Rashid Al-Dosari

Rashid Al-Dosari is a Bahraini footballer.

Nabeel bin Yaqub Al-Hamar

Nabeel Yacoob AlHamer is Advisor for Information Affairs to His Majesty the King of Bahrain Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah. He is also the former Minister of Information. AlHamer also owns Bahrain&rsquos leading newspaper Al Ayam for which he has been the editor in chief since he founded it in 1989.

Khalil al-Marzooq

Khalil Al-Marzooq is a Bahraini Shi'a politician and former member of the Council of Representatives. During his time in office, he served as first deputy chairman. On February 14, 2011, Marzooq and 17 other MPs from Al Wefaq, the main Shi'a Islamist opposition party, resigned from their seats in parliament. Following the quelling of the unrest by the government, Marzooq led negotiations with the government in the Bahrain national dialogue, but he and the four other delegates from Al Wefaq withdrew from negotiations on July 17. Al-Marzooq was arrested on September 18, 2013 for his criticism of the government. Amnesty International designated him a prisoner of conscience and called for his immediate release. He has been charged with inciting terrorist crimes.

Hussain Salman

Husain Salman Makki is a soccer player.

Mohammed Haddad

Mohammad Haddad is a Bahraini composer and music critic. He is an active artist in the music scene of Bahrain and a leading composer in the film scores of Bahraini films. He is best known for his work on the soundtrack of the critically acclaimed Bahraini motion picture A Bahraini Tale.

Mohammed Tayeb Al-Alawi

Mohammed Tayeb Al Alawi is a Bahrainian association footballer currently playing for Al-Najma and the Bahrain national football team as a Striker.

Waleed Al Hayam

Waleed Mohamed Abdulla Ali Al Hayam is Bahraini footballer. He is playing for home team Al-Muharraq in Bahraini Premier League as a defender. He was called to Bahrain national football team at 2011 AFC Asian Cup, hosted by neighboring country Qatar. He also plays as midfielder in international matches.

Ebrahim Al Mishkhas

Ebrahim Al Mishkhas is a Bahraini football defender. He currently plays for Al-Muharraq Sports Club. Al Mishkhas represented Bahrain at the 1997 FIFA U-17 World Championship in Egypt.

Mohamed Albuflasa

Mohamed Yousif Rashid Albuflasa is a Bahraini poet, writer, former independent candidate for the Bahraini Parliament in the 2010 Parliamentary elections and a member of the Bahraini youth parliament. Formerly a Bahrain Defence Force officer, he is now employed in Crown prince court. As a result of a speech he made to the Pearl Roundabout protests, Albuflasa became the first political prisoner in the Bahraini uprising. Albuflasa's speech was significant as a religiously conservative Salafi Sunni addressing protesters who were mostly Shia or secular Sunni Muslims.

Sayed Mahmood Jalal

Sayed Mahmood Jalal is a Bahraini footballer currently playing with Al Muharraq Club of Bahrain and the Bahrain national football team. After starting at Al-Shabab, Sayed Mahmood Jalal joined Bahrain league giants Muharraq in 2003 and soon became a national team regular. He started four of Bahrain&rsquos six matches in the 2004 AFC Asian Cup before signing for Qatar&rsquos Al Khreitiat that same year. In 2005, he moved to Qatari league rivals Al Siliya before returning to his former club Muharraq in October 2006. The much travelled Jalal was on the move again in February when he joined Qatar SC.

Mohammed Jaber Al-Ansari

Mohammed Jaber Al-Ansari, is a prominent Bahraini philosopher and political thinker, and an influential proponent of rational thinking in the 20th-century Arab World. He played a pivotal role in establishing the previously peripheral Persian Gulf region as an integral contributor to modern Arabic thought, on equal footing with other parts of the Arab World. His early work as a literary historian, and critic, instigated wide literary activity in his native Bahrain and in its surrounding Persian Gulf region. Al-Ansari was one of the early Arab intellectuals to delve into studying the East Asian experiences and draw comparisons with the Arab World.

Kapil Jhaveri

Kapil Jhaveri is an actor.

Khalifa Al Dhahrani

Khalifa bin Ahmed Al Dhahrani is a Bahraini politician, currently serving as the Speaker of the Council of Representatives of Bahrain.

Lamees Dhaif

Lamees Dhaif is a Bahraini journalist, active in the Bahraini resistance campaign. As early as 2009 she was in trouble, being summonsed to the Public Prosecutor's office after she had accused some judges of corruption. She has supported the Bahraini uprising that began as part of the Arab Spring. Her work has made her the target of government crackdowns on journalists. She is renowned for political and social criticism, including satirical articles. She has written in various newspapers in the Persian Gulf region, and she has a column in Alyaum, one of the most important newspapers in Saudi Arabia. Dhaif became famous when she presented a program on Al-Rai, a private Kuwaiti television channel which talked about taboo issues such as poverty, sadism, prostitution, corruption, and inequality. It also included social issues such as enslavement of foreign labor and problems faced by local women who are married to foreigners. Dhaif is popular among youth and intellectuals, but her articles have always aroused controversy. A legal case was filed against her after she harshly criticized corrupt judges, however, the case was suspended because of pressure from both local and international organizations.

Fadhel Al-Matrook

Fadhel Salman Ali Salman Al-Matrook was a 31-year-old Bahraini who died in hospital on 15 February 2011 after reportedly being hit in the back and chest by bird pellet gunshots fired from short distance by Bahraini security forces during the Bahraini uprising. Bahrain king Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa announced in a rare televised speech that the deaths of Ali Abdulhadi Mushaima and Fadhel Al-Matrook would be investigated. However, results of the investigation have not been revealed as of November 2011.

May Nasr

May Nasr is a Lebanese singer, musician and microfinancing consultant. She was born in the Kingdom of Bahrain in 1965 and she got a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Beirut in 1987.

Ahmed Jaber al-Qattan

Ahmed Jaber Ali al-Qattan was a 16 or 17-year-old Bahraini teenager who died in a hospital on 6 October 2011 after reportedly being hit in chest, abdomen and upper limb by bird pellet gunshots fired by Bahraini security forces during the Bahraini uprising. Several human rights organizations in Bahrain believe that the use of birdshot against humans is banned under international law, while the Ministry of Interior disagrees. The Ministry of Interior stated that there was a gathering of 20 people in Abu Saiba who blocked the roads and police men intervened to disperse them as authorized. Activists, however, began a series of large protests after his funeral.

Khalifa Ahmed Al Bin Ali

Khalifa Ahmed Al Bin Ali, was one of the leading, principal, and most important men of the Al Bin Ali tribe in Bahrain during the early 1970s throughout the early 2000s.

Ali Aamer

Ali Aamer is a Bahraini footballer who is a midfielder for Muharraq Club. He is a member of the Bahrain national football team.

Hamad Rakea Al Anezi

Hamad Rakea Al Anezi is a Bahraini footballer currently playing for Al-Riffa of Bahrain and the Bahrain national football team. Hamad was banned by WADA for 24 months after testing positive for steroids. He returned to playing football on 1 June 2010.

Khalid Alibaba

Khalid Ismael Ali Baba is a Bahraini swimmer. He appeared in the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, as part of Bahrain's Olympic team. He participated in the men's 100m butterfly event where he recorded a time of 1:04.05, which beat his previous personal best of 1:05.09.

Abdulhadi Khalaf

Abdulhadi Khalaf is a Bahraini leftist political activist and senior lecturer in the Sociology department at Lund University. He is regarded as a specialist in the politics of the Persian Gulf region.

Saleh Abdulhameed

Saleh Abdulhameed is a Bahraini footballer who plays as a defender for Al-Najma.

Rashed Al Hooti

Rashed Al Hooti is a Bahraini professional footballer who plays as a defender. He plays for the Bahrain national football team. He was a member of the Bahrain squad at the 2011 AFC Asian Cup. and he is the current holder of the title of fastest red card in international match history. On 11 October 2011 against Iran in 2014 World Cup qualifier match he was carded in 42 seconds.

Duaij Naser

Duaij Naser Abdulla is a Bahraini footballer currently playing for Al-Hala of Bahrain and the Bahrain national football team.


Watch the video: A Super Quick History of Bahrain (January 2022).