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Burleigh APA-95 - History


Burleigh

Burleigh is a county in North Dakota.

APR-3 was assigned the name Burleigh, but her contract was cancelled 12 March 1943 prior to keel laying.

I

(APA-9.5): dp. 8392; 1. 492'; b. 69'6"; dr. 26'6"; s. 18.4
k.; cpl. 384; a. 2 5"; cl. Bayfield)

Burleigh (APA-95) was launched 3 December 1943 by Ingalls Shipbuilding Co., Pascagoula, Miss., under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. Dallas H. Smith; and placed in reduced commission 1 April 1944. She was taken to New York and placed out of commission 13 April 1944 for conversion by Bethlehem Steel Co., 56th St. Yard, Brooklyn, N. Y. The ship was placed in full commission 30 October 1944, Commander D. G. Greenlee in command.

On 3 December 1944 Burleigh departed Hampton Roads, Va., and proceeded to the Pacific arriving at Pearl Harbor 23 December. She became flagship of Transport Squadron 18 at San Francisco 3 January 1945. During January and February 1945 Burleigh transported passengers and supplies to Pearl Harbor, Guadalcanal, and the Russell Islands. March 1945 was spent at Ulithi, Caroline Islands, in preparation for the assault on Okinawa. Burleigh departed Ulithi, in company with Transport Squadron 18, 27 March 1945 and arrived off Okinawa I April. She remained in the area disembarking Marines and supplies until 10 April when she got underway for Pearl Harbor. She arrived at Pearl Harbor 27 April, after stopping at Guam to embark casualties.

Returning to San Francisco 4 June 1945, Burleigh embarked troops and supplies and steamed to Guam via Pearl Harbor, Eniwetok, and Saipan. She returned to San Francisco 2 August. With the cessation of hostilities Burleigh was assigned to the "Magie Carpet" fleet returning veterans from the Pacific until March 1946. On 15 March 1946 she departed the west coast for Norfolk, where she arrived 3 April. She was decommissioned 11 June 1946 and returned to the Maritime Commission the following day.

Burleigh received one battle star for her World War Il service.


Oldies But Goodies


PAul Senior leaves for Hawaii oin the Hawaiian Pilot about 1951

Did You Know? - The construction of the so-called C-3 cargo vessels began during World War II, after the famous "Liberty" and "Victory" ships. This standardized type of ship overtook all other ships as it was more modern and longer and could also reach a higher speed. After the Second World War these ships were converted into ordinary freighters and sold to various shipping companies. The Hawaiian Pilot was built in 1944 and first went into service as the USS Burleigh. After the war ended it was acquired and refitted by the Matson Navigation Company and mainly travelled the Los Angeles, San Francisco and Hawaii routes. The cargo consisted of normal consumer goods of all kinds and agrarian products primarily bound for the West Coast of the USA. The vessel had a cruising speed of 16.5 knots and a total cargo capacity of 12,500 tonnes.

Jacob Luckenbach's history began back in 1944 as the C3 cargo ship Sea Robin. The United States was at war and in need of vessels to transport troops and cargo to foreign ports to support the war effort. Sea Robin's keel was laid on 01 October 1943 later being launched on 29 February 1944 at the Ingalls Shipbuilding Corp at Pascagoula, Mississippi. The steamship was assigned hull No. 411. Just four months earlier the USS Burleigh (APA-95), assigned hull No. 406 slipped down the ways at the Ingalls shipyard in Pascagoula. The combat loaded transport USS Burleigh went on to receive one battle star for her service in WWII and was later sold to Matson Navigation Co. in 1947 and renamed Hawaiian Pilot. Before being sold off to Oceanic Steamship Company in 1961 and renamed Sonoma, and later to Pacific Far East Lines in 1970, she would meet for one last time with her sister ship Jacob Luckenbach off the Golden Gate near San Francisco.

After the famous &bdquoLiberty&ldquo and &bdquoVictory&ldquo ships, all built during World War 2, the C-3 freighter came. The C 3 types surpassed all other World War 2 standard ships because they were larger, had a higher speed and were in fact better than the &ldquoLiberty&rdquo and &ldquoVictory&rdquo ships. The C3-types were subdivided in 24 different ver- sions, for instance C3-E, C3-A-P&C(S) and more. A number of C3s were built as aircraft carrier (the C3-S-A2 type) the so-called &bdquobaby flattops&ldquo, but after World War 2 the flattops were rebuilt into cargo ships and sold to other countries. Several shipping companies in Europe bought those ships enabling them to resume their trade.

The Hawaiian Pilot, a C-3 Class freighter, was built by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Corporation of Pascagoula, Mississippi, in 1944. She was launched as the Burleigh, and during the late stages of World War II she served as a Naval Command ship in the Pacific area.

At the close of the War she was purchased by The Matson Navigation Company and reconverted into a cargo carrying freighter, and was in service on the run between Los Angeles, San Francisco and the various ports of the Hawaiin Islands. When she was outbound to the Islands her cargo was different new cars, food, clothing, construction materials, livestock, in fact it carries all of the things need- ed to maintain a high standard of living in a modern community of 500.000 peo- ple. The Matson Freighters were literally floating warehouses for the people of Hawaii. On the trip back she was loaded with a variety of Island products, includ- ing coffee, nuts, sugar, pineaple and molasses. The Pilot had a normal capacity of 8.000 tons of bulk raw sugar, and 2.500 tons of molasses.

The C-3 class freighters had a top speed of 18 knots, and a cruising speed of 16.5 knots. Its total cargo capacity was 12.500 tons and there were accommodations for 12 passengers in modern, roomy cabins. Thirteen licensed officers and 38 men complete the crew. The Pilot had a total fuel capacity of 23.000 barrels of oil, and had 60.000 cubic feet of refrigerated space which could carry a cargo at temperatures as low as &ndash 10 degrees. She was equipped with radar, radio tele- fone and all of the modern navigational aids. It was been estimated that, since the Hawaiian Pilot was in MATSON service, she run a half million miles in the Pacific.


Yes. I had a merry-go-round in my back yard . Playing with cousin Tom Hale


Hansome devil!


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Product Description

USS Burleigh APA 95

"Personalized" Canvas Ship Print

(Not just a photo or poster but a work of art!)

Every sailor loved his ship. It was his life. Where he had tremendous responsibility and lived with his closest shipmates. As one gets older his appreciation for the ship and the Navy experience gets stronger. A personalized print shows ownership, accomplishment and an emotion that never goes away. It helps to show your pride even if a loved one is no longer with you. Every time you walk by the print you will feel the person or the Navy experience in your heart (guaranteed).

The image is portrayed on the waters of the ocean or bay with a display of her crest if available. The ships name is printed on the bottom of the print. What a great canvas print to commemorate yourself or someone you know who may have served aboard her.

The printed picture is exactly as you see it. The canvas size is 8"x10" ready for framing as it is or you can add an additional matte of your own choosing. You also have the option to purchase a larger picture size (11"x 14") on a 13" X 19" canvas. The prints are made to order. They look awesome when matted and framed .

We PERSONALIZE the print with "Name, Rank and/or Years Served" or anything else you would like it to state (NO ADDITIONAL CHARGE). It is placed just above the ships photo. After purchasing the print simply email us or indicate in the notes section of your payment what you would like printed on it.

United States Navy Sailor YOUR NAME HERE Proudly Served Sept 1963 - Sept 1967

This would make a nice gift and a great addition to any historic military collection. Would be fantastic for decorating the home or office wall.

The watermark "Great Naval Images" will NOT be on your print.

This photo is printed on Archival-Safe Acid-Free canvas using a high resolution printer and should last many years.

Because of its unique natural woven texture canvas offers a special and distinctive look that can only be captured on canvas. The canvas print does not need glass thereby enhancing the appearance of your print, eliminating glare and reducing your overall cost.

We guarantee you will not be disappointed with this item or your money back. In addition, We will replace the canvas print unconditionally for FREE if you damage your print. You would only be charged a nominal fee plus shipping and handling.


Our History: Burgess and Leigh Pottery

We have been crafting high-quality ceramics in England for over 160 years. Recognised for our dedication to fine craftsmanship and traditional manufacturing, we have been making our iconic blue and white ceramics, using the same techniques for generations. We are the last pottery in the world to use the traditional and timeless skill of underglaze tissue printing, which is an English process dating back over 200 years.

Burgess and Leigh

In 1851, Messrs Hulme and Booth started an earthenware business in the central pottery in Burslem, Stoke-On-Trent. This pottery produced earthenware until 1862 when Mr William Leigh and Mr Frederick Rathbone Burgess formed a partnership and took over the running of the central pottery.

The Middleport Pottery

The business moved to Middleport Pottery by the Trent and Mersey Canal in 1889, where you will find us today. Following the deaths of William Leigh and Frederick Rathbone Burgess, the business continued with the support of their sons, Edmund Leigh and Richard Burgess. The Leigh family took sole control of the business in 1912 when Richard Burgess passed away.

During the 20th Century, Burgess and Leigh became known as ‘Burleigh’. Following difficult conditions in the 90s, the Dorling family purchased the business and a new era of family ownership began. In 2010, Burleigh was acquired by Denby Holdings Limited, the parent company of Denby Pottery. A year later, The Prince of Wales stepped in to help with emergency repair works needed at Middleport Pottery – his charity, HRH The Princes Regeneration Trust, offered the £9 million support that we needed to keep production going.

At Burleigh Pottery, our skilled team of craftspeople have been producing Burleighware at The Middleport Pottery since 1889. It takes many pairs of hands to create a single piece of Burleigh pottery, and each pot is meticulously hand-finished. Creating something good, something that lasts, something that is above fashion and trends, something timeless, can’t be hurried.


Aboriginal History

In May, 1770, Sir Joseph Banks observed some Aboriginal activity at Burleigh Heads from the deck of the Endeavour.The first inhabitants of the Burleigh area were the 5000 year old Kombumerri Tribe known as “The Salt Water People”. It is believed they lived in the area for thousands of years until around 1936 when they ceased holding their ceremonies there but many of the people remained at Burleigh Heads.

Take A Closer Look At Jellurgal

For a real life look into the past, visit Jellurgal Cultural Centre and get in touch with Burleigh's Aboriginal history. Located at Burleigh Headland just off main highway, cultural tours are available from the only Aboriginal cultural centre on the Gold Coast. They also have art for slae, cultural learning and venue hire.


Burleigh APA-95 - History

Oceanic Steamship Company

Founded in 1881 by John D. Spreckels & Brothers and ran services from the USA, initially to Hawaii, later to Australia and New Zealand. In 1926 Oceanic sold out to Matson Line and became a subsidiary company.

Many thanks to Ted Finch for his assistance in collecting this data. The following list was extracted from various sources. This is not an all inclusive list but should only be used as a guide. If you would like to know more about a vessel, visit the Ship Descriptions (onsite) or Immigrant Ship web site.

Fleet:

Vessel Built Years in Service Tons
Alameda (1) 1883 iron ship, 1910 Sold to Alaska Steamship Co. 3,000
Alameda (2) 1944 ex- U.S.S. Shoshone (AKA-65).1947 purchased by Oceanic renamed Alameda, 1961 traded to Matson, renamed Hawaiian Trader. 1961 Sold to Sea-Land Service, Inc, 1964 renamed Short Hills, Colorado. 8,218
Anna 1881 wood schooner,1898 sold to Pacific Marine Supply Co., San Francisco. 239
Australia 1875 iron steamer, 1886 chartered to Oceanic, 1890 received American registry. 1905 Chartered to Russian Imperial Government, captured by Japanese cruiser Suma. 2,737
Claus Spreckels 1879 wood brigantine, built San Francisco. 1888 Lost on Duxbury Reef, north of Bolinas Bay, Calif. 247
Consuelo 1880 wood brigantine, 1900 sold to Charles Nelson. 293
Emma Augusta 1867 wood barquentine. 1889 Lost in Gulf of California. 284
John D. Spreckels 1880 wood brigantine, rerigged as 3 mast schooner for Bering Sea cod fishery. 1913 Lost in collision with British s/s Statesman. 300
Mariposa (1) 1883 iron ship, 1912 sold to Alaska Steamship Co. 3,000
Mariposa (2) 1931 1953 sold to Home Lines renamed Homeric until fire in1969. Scrapped in Taiwan. 18,017
Mariposa (3) 1952 ex- Pine Tree Mariner. 1956 Matson bought for Oceanic, renamed Mariposa and rebuilt as 14,812 ton passenger liner, 1970 sold to Pacific Far East Lines. 9,217
Monterey (1) see Matson Line. .
Monterey (2) 1931 sister ship to Mariposa (2), 1957 renamed Matsonia (3), 1963 renamed Lurline (4). 1970 Sold to Greece renamed Britanis. 18,017
Monterey (3) 1952 ex- Free State Mariner. 1955 Matson bought for Oceanic, renamed Monterey and rebuilt as 14,799 ton passenger ship. 1970 sold to Pacific Far East Lines. 9,217
Rosario 1879 2 mast wood schooner, built San Francisco, 1882 bought by Spreckels Brothers, transferred to Oceanic, 1887 sold. 148
Selina 1883 wood brigantine. Operated by Oceanic, 1886-1887 chartered by Matson,1887 wrecked Paukaa, Hawaii. 349
Sierra (1) 1900 passenger ship, 1920 Sold to Polish-American Navigation Co. renamed Gdansk. 1924 repurchased by Oceanic, renamed Sierra , 1934 scrapped Japan. 6,076
Sierra (2) 1944 ex- U.S.S. Stokes (AKA-68). 1947 purchased by Oceanic, 1961 traded to Matson, renamed Hawaiian Banker. 1961 sold to Sea-Land, renamed Fanwood. 8,178
Sierra (3) 1945 ex- Sea Centaur. 1947 purchased by Matson, renamed Hawaiian Banker (1), 1961 traded to Oceanic renamed Sierra , 1970 sold renamed Vantage Endeavor. 7,920
Sonoma (1) 1900 passenger liner, scrapped 1934. 6,279
Sonoma (2) 1944 ex- White Squall. 1947 purchased by Oceanic renamed Sonoma, 1961 traded to Matson renamed Hawaiian Pilot, 1962 sold renamed Smith Pilot. 8,258
Sonoma (3) 1944 ex- U.S.S. Burleigh (APA-95). 1947 purchased by Matson, 1961 transferred to Oceanic 1961. 1970 Sold to Pacific Far East Lines. 8,445
Suez 1876 1882-1883 Chartered by Oceanic from Nelson, Donkin & Co., London. Went on to Hong Kong and Atlantic. Later Turkish Hodeidah. 2,166
Ventura (1) 1900 1934 Scrapped. 6,282
Ventura (2) 1944 ex- U.S.S. Todd (AKA-71). 1947 purchased by Oceanic renamed Ventura,1961 traded to Matson, renamed Hawaiian Wholesaler, 1961 sold. renamed Chatham. 8,175
Ventura (3) 1945 ex- U.S.S. Hanover (AKA-116). 1947 purchased by Oceanic, 1965 traded to Matson, 1970 sold renamed Entu. 8,413
W. H. Dimond 1881 wood barquentine, 1904 sold to Alaska Codfish Co. 390
William G. Irwin 1881 wood brigantine, 1901 sold to Tacoma & Roche Harbor Lime Co. 348
Zealandia 1875 1886 chartered by Oceanic, 1898 became military transport under American registry, returned to island service after war until 1902. 1906 Sold to Charles L. Dimon 2,737

TheShipsList®™ - (Swiggum) All Rights Reserved - Copyright © 1997-present
These pages may be freely linked to but not duplicated in any fashion without written consent of .
Last updated: July 01, 2007 and maintained by and M. Kohli


Burleigh history

This image opens up in a popup window. To close this window please push the escape key on your keyboard.

Camp on the beach at Burleigh Heads,
circa 1912. Photographer unknown.

Looking towards Little and Big Burleigh
Heads, circa 1885. Photographer unknown.

In 1840, surveyor J. R. Warner was commissioned to survey the coastline near Moreton Bay.

Warner named the headland near Tallebudgera Creek, Burly Head because of its massive appearance. Over the years Burly was changed to Burleigh.

William Hanlon, whose childhood memories of the district went back to the 1870s, recorded in 1935 that for local Aborigines, Big Burleigh was Jellurgul Little Burleigh was Jebbribillum or the Waddy of Jebreen.

In another article, Hanlon referred to Jellurgul as meaning sugar bag or bee's nest.

Another identity who knew the area and its inhabitants well from the 1870s was Archibald Meston. He recalled fifty years later that the local Aborigines called Big Burleigh Jayling (black) and Gumbelmoy (rock), after the volcanic black basalt rock of the headland.

Information and images provided by the City of Gold Coast Local Studies Collection.


Burleigh History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The name dates back to the Domesday Book of 1086 where Wihenoc de Burli was listed as holding lands in Norfolk. [2] Over one hundred years later, John de Burgeley was found in Hertfordshire in the Feet of Fines for 1198 and later, John of Burlay was registered in Warwickshire in the Assize Rolls in 1249. [3]

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Early Origins of the Burleigh family

The surname Burleigh was first found in Somerset where Burley Castle where a motte and bailey castle of the late 11th or early 12th century remains to this day. The village and civil parish Burley, or Burley-on-the-Hill, is located two miles north-east of Oakham in Rutland. Burleigh Castle is located near the village of Milnathort, in Perth and Kinross, Scotland and dates from the 15th and 16th centuries. It was held by the Balfours from 1446. Burleigh is also a village in Berkshire, England, within the civil parish of Warfield.

Some of the earliest records of the family include: John Burley (d. 1333), a Carmelite of Stamford Walter Burley (or Burleigh), (c.1275-1344), a medieval English logician, Master of Arts at Oxford in 1301, and a fellow of Merton College, Oxford until 1305 and Sir Simon Burley (1336-1388), an early English warrior and favourite from a Herefordshire family. "His parentage is uncertain, but he appears to have been a younger brother rather than a son of the Sir John Burley who received the Garter at the accession of Richard II." [4] He was accused and sentenced for abuse of power by the parliament 5 May 1388 and sentenced to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, which was commuted by the king. He was summarily beheaded the same day. [4]

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Early History of the Burleigh family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Burleigh research. Another 191 words (14 lines of text) covering the years 1273, 1437, 1409, 1336, 1388, 1384, 1388, 1388, 1485 and 1510 are included under the topic Early Burleigh History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

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Burleigh Spelling Variations

Spelling variations in names were a common occurrence before English spelling was standardized a few hundred years ago. In the Middle Ages, even the literate spelled their names differently as the English language incorporated elements of French, Latin, and other European languages. Many variations of the name Burleigh have been found, including Burley, Burleigh, Burlie, Burrley, Burrlie, Burrleigh, Burly, Bourley, Bourleigh, Bourly, Berly and many more.

Early Notables of the Burleigh family (pre 1700)

Distinguished members of the family include William Burley, Speaker of the House of Commons of England in March 1437 and John Burley, Sheriff of county Salop in 1409. Sir Simon de Burley (ca.1336-1388), was Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports and Constable of.
Another 42 words (3 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Burleigh Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Burleigh family to Ireland

Some of the Burleigh family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 46 words (3 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Burleigh migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Burleigh Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Abell Burleigh who settled in Virginia in 1652
  • Abell Burleigh, who landed in Virginia in 1652 [5]
Burleigh Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • John Burleigh, who arrived in Virginia in 1719 [5]
  • William Burleigh, who settled in Virginia in 1729
  • Robert Burleigh, who landed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1745 [5]
  • Francis Burleigh, who settled in Pennsylvania in 1773
Burleigh Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • George William Burleigh, who settled in New York State early in the seventeenth century
  • H Burleigh, who landed in San Francisco, California in 1850 [5]
  • Annie Burleigh, aged 53, who immigrated to the United States, in 1896
Burleigh Settlers in United States in the 20th Century
  • Charlotte Burleigh, aged 18, who immigrated to the United States from Fermanagh, in 1903
  • Edith Burleigh, aged 30, who landed in America from London, England, in 1907
  • Charles Burleigh, aged 26, who immigrated to the United States from Glasgow, Scotland, in 1909
  • Alston Burleigh, aged 9, who landed in America, in 1909
  • Christian Seath Burleigh, aged 22, who landed in America from Liverpool, England, in 1913
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Burleigh migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Burleigh Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • Fredk Burleigh, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • John Burleigh, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Mr. John Burleigh U.E. who settled in Canada c. 1783 [6]

Burleigh migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Burleigh Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Mr. James Burleigh, English convict who was convicted in Somerset, England for 14 years for larceny, transported aboard the "Champion" on 24th May 1827, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[7]

Burleigh migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:


Burleigh APA-95 - History

Burleigh County, North Dakota

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Our goal is to help you track your ancestors through time by transcribing genealogical and historical data and placing it online
for the free use of all researchers.

This Burleigh County Website is available for adoption.

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Get the details on our Volunteer Page .
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Burleigh County History

Founded in 1873

The County Seat is Bismarck

Cities
* Bismarck * Lincoln * Regan * Wilton * Wing
Note: all incorporated communities in North Dakota are called "cities" regardless of their size.

Unincorporated Communities
* Baldwin * Driscoll * McKenzie * Menoken * Moffit * Sterling


The Third Reich : A New History ( 2000 )

Americans, though understandably put off by the damage they've seen ideology wreak in other countries, have overcompensated by developing a weird mind set which automatically gives greater authority to those who pretend to eschew any personal point of view. We celebrate politicians who mouth platitudes and shun the controversial, lauding them as non-partisan statesmen. We seem to want our news presented in a bland factual manner without the least hint of partisanship. And the highest aspiration of history and biography tends to be to march out a string of facts without any context given or judgment offered, unless they strictly conform to preconceived notions of events. Thus, Doris Kearns Goodwin, having published virtual hagiographies of LBJ, JFK and the Roosevelts, and David McCullough, who performed a similar service for Harry Truman, are our best selling presidential historian/biographers. But let Edmund Morris experiment with narrative technique or Pat Buchanan suggest that the isolationists were right prior to Pearl Harbor and the media react as if they'd caught the two men sodomizing goats.

Europeans on the other hand, whose culture you'll not often hear me praise over ours, well understand that the kind of evenhandedness that Americans demand is neither possible nor necessarily helpful. First of all, it requires two highly implausible things, both that authors and journalists genuinely have no personal politics or that they keep these politics from influencing their writing, and that the broad unchallenged public consensus be basically "correct," and therefore have no need to be challenged. You need only watch a nightly news broadcast to dispose of the first assumption an American media which refers to Bill Clinton as "the President" but to the House and Senate as "the Republican Congress" is simply not succeeding in hiding its partisanship. The second proposition hardly seems to need much disproving but take just one example : Détente. In the 1970's it was the received wisdom of the West that the USSR was a permanent fixture in the firmament of nation's, that its Marxism was simply an alternative economic arrangement, one that had achieved some remarkable successes, and that, therefore, it was necessary to reach an accommodation with Soviet leaders. Against this overwhelming consensus, Ronald Reagan argued that the Soviet Union remained an "Evil Empire," wholly illegitimate and incapable of ever satisfying the human needs of its own population, that faced with Western determination and technological prowess, they would crumble and end on the ash heap of history. This viewpoint, which was not even shared by most of the people in his own administration, let alone the Party, the nation or the West, proved prescient and ultimately prevailed.

This is just one example of the creative tension that occurs when the prevailing orthodoxy is challenged. One of the important things to remember is that the challenge need not turn out to have been correct in order for the fact of its having been mounted to prove efficacious. The simple act of making people defend the orthodoxy, to think through its ramifications, can be worthwhile. To return to an earlier example, the nation would have done well to grapple with the issues that Pat Buchanan raised, rather than dismissing them. America in the year 2000 is returning rapidly to its isolationist norm, but a significant totalitarian threat to world peace remains on the scene : Communist China. The failure to seriously contemplate whether disregarding Nazi adventurism might actually have served us and the world well, better than did WWII and the resulting Cold War, makes it more difficult for us to honestly consider the ramifications of our current failure to deter China's expansionism.

When it comes to popular history on the Nazi era, a subject about which very little deviation from the norm is tolerated, the one book that you'll most often see cited is William Shirer's Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. A perfectly acceptable relic of its time, this book treats Hitler and the Nazi Party as complete aberrations, imposed on a slumbering Germany by a freakish set of circumstances. This view, understandable in a liberal West which finds it necessary to aver "it couldn't happen here" and which found it necessary to rehabilitate Germany into a worthy Cold War ally, has prevailed for the better part of sixty years now. In recent years however at least one book has come along to directly challenge this view, Daniel Jonah Goldhagen's excellent Hitler's Willing Executioners. But to my knowledge, British historian Michael Burleigh's Third Reich is the first major one volume history to rival Shirer's work and it is an invaluable corrective, precisely the kind of big idea contrarian history that we could use more of and which, even if the author's claims are ultimately rejected, can serve to clarify the thinking of us all on the issues he broaches.

Burleigh apparently draws on some academic work (for instance that by Saul Freidlander) with which I'm unfamiliar, but his central argument will ring a bell with anyone who's ever read Eric Hoffer's great book The True Believer. Burleigh considers the Third Reich to have been the product of a political religion, replete with symbols, hymns, liturgy, martyrs and a Messiah. From this perspective, the German people, defeated in WWI and impoverished by reparations and Depression, emerge, not as unwitting dupes, but as desperate believers in a new state religion propounded by Hitler, a true totalitarianism, suffused with racially motivated criminality, which sought to infiltrate every aspect of their lives. In one of the more striking quotes in the book, one that Hoffer would have noted, Burleigh cites Hitler favorably discussing Roman Catholicism :

Be assured, we too put faith in the first place and not cognition. One has to be able to believe in a
cause. Only faith creates a state. What motivates people to go and do battle and die for religious
ideas ? Not cognition, but blind faith.

Over the course of the book, Burleigh demonstrates the gradual process by which the German people's faith in Hitler and Nazism grew, supplanting their belief in Christianity and vitiating their sense of morality. Where Goldhagen showed the German people to have been generally amenable to Hitler's exterminationist program, Burleigh shows them to have participated in, or at least to have acquiesced in, a truly totalitarian program which replaced every aspect of traditional German culture and society with Nazi beliefs.

This idea, of Nazism as a religion, gives the book a helpful focus and a unifying theme around which to organize the enormous amount of information which Mr. Burleigh has assimilated and lays out here. In addition, where the prior treatment Hitler and Nazism as a historical exception may have acted as a balm to our liberal sensibilities, Burleigh's treatment of them helps us both to understand their similarity to the Soviet Union and Communism, and to understand how such movements could rise again. It's an excellent book, one that benefits greatly from the author's willingness to advance a novel view and to prosecute his case forcefully. If you've developed a palate for the sort of bland mush that passes for popular history these days, you might find it too bracing, but if you've enjoyed such powerful iconoclastic works as those already mentioned, or Richard Pipes's Russian Revolution, or Niall Ferguson's Pity of War , this one's sure to appeal to you also. It seems destined to become a classic if only enough people with open minds are willing to read it.


Watch the video: LA 92 Full Documentary. National Geographic (January 2022).