Information

Combat of Plagwitz, 29 August 1813


Combat of Plagwitz, 29 August 1813

The combat of Plagwitz (29 August 1813) was a second French disaster in the aftermath of their defeat on the Katzbach (26 August 1813), and cost them all of Puthod's division.

On 25 August Marshal Macdonald, the commander of the Army of the Bobr, prepared to cross the Katzbach and advance towards Jauer, where he expected to find Marshal Blücher's Prussians on the defensive. Macdonald wasn't sure where St. Priest's Russians were, and so deteached Puthod's division from V Corps and Ledru's division from XI Corps to his right to guard against that possible threat.

On 26 August Macdonald and Blücher clashed just after the French crossed the Katzbach. Macdonald suffered a heavy defeat, and was forced to retreat west. This left Puthod dangerously isolated. He couldn't use the road up the Katzbach via Goldberg, as Langeron's corps from Blücher's army blocked that route, and so he had to retreat west towards the Bobr. He reached that river at Hirschberg, but found that the bridge had been destroyed and the river was too high to allow it to be repaired. He then moved north down the river in an attempt to find an alternative crossing point.

By 29 August he had reached Löwenberg, but the bridge there was also gone (Lauriston's corps had found the bridge down when they reached Löwenberg late on 27 August, but they were able to cross at Bunzlau).

Further north the bridge at Bunzlau was now in Allied hands. Langeron's corps had caught up with the French, and Puthod was forced to make a stand on the heights of Plagwitz, east of Löwenberg. However it soon became clear that he was massively outnumbered, and he was forced to surrender with his division.

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UPI Almanac for Saturday, Aug. 29, 2020

Today is Saturday, Aug. 29, the 242nd day of 2020 with 124 to follow.

The moon is waxing. Morning stars are Jupiter, Mars, Neptune, Saturn, Uranus and Venus. Evening stars are Jupiter, Mars, Neptune, Saturn and Uranus.

Those born on this date are under the sign of Virgo. They include British King Henry V in 1387 English philosopher John Locke in 1632 author/poet Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. in 1809 Henry Bergh, founder of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, in 1813 automotive inventor Charles Kettering in 1876 actress Ingrid Bergman in 1915 actor Isabel Sanford in 1917 jazz saxophonist Charlie "Bird" Parker in 1920 NASCAR racer Wendell Scott in 1921 British filmmaker Richard Attenborough in 1923 jazz/pop singer Dinah Washington in 1924 filmmaker William Friedkin in 1935 (age 85) U.S. Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz., in 1936 actor Elliott Gould in 1938 (age 82) TV personality Robin Leach in 1941 scientist Temple Grandin in 1947 (age 73) entertainer Michael Jackson in 1958 Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield in 1959 (age 61) actor Rebecca De Mornay in 1959 (age 61) actor Carla Gugino in 1971 (age 49) actor Lea Michele in 1986 (age 34) pop singer Liam Payne in 1993 (age 27).

In 1533, Atahualpa, last of the Inca rulers, was strangled under orders of Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro. The Inca Empire died with him.

In 1929, the German airship, the Graf Zeppelin, completed its around-the-world flight, beginning and ending at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey.

In 1949, the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb at a remote test site at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan.

In 1958, the U.S. Air Force Academy opened at its permanent site in Colorado Springs, Colo., three years after its launch at a temporary location in Denver.

In 1965, U.S. astronauts Gordon Cooper and Charles Conrad landed safely to end the eight-day orbital flight of Gemini 5.

In 1973, U.S. District Judge John Sirica ordered U.S. President Richard Nixon to turn over secret Watergate tapes. Nixon refused and appealed the order.

In 1982, three-time Academy Award-winning actress Ingrid Bergman died on her birthday of cancer. She was 67.

In 1994, Israel and the PLO signed an agreement to shift West Bank administrative functions to the Palestinian National Authority.

In 2004, the Summer Olympics came to a close in Athens, Greece. The United States won the most medals, 103, 35 of them gold, led by swimmer Michael Phelps who took home six gold and two bronze medals.

In 2005, Hurricane Katrina slammed ashore on the Gulf Coast, inflicting severe damage in New Orleans and along the coastlines of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. Katrina killed more than 1,800 people and caused an estimated $125 billion in damage.

In 2009, U.S. Sen. Edward Kennedy, D-Mass., who died Aug. 25 after a 15-month battle with brain cancer, was buried at Arlington National Cemetery near his brothers John and Robert.

In 2013, the National Football League denied any wrongdoing but said it would "do the right thing" and pay $765 million to settle lawsuits brought by thousands of former players who developed concussion-related brain injuries.

In 2018, the Green Bay Packers agreed to a $134 million contract extension with two-time MVP Aaron Rodgers.

A thought for the day: "If we accept and acquiesce in the face of discrimination, we accept the responsibility ourselves and allow those responsible to salve their conscience by believing that they have our acceptance and concurrence. We should, therefore, protest openly everything . that smacks of discrimination or slander." -- American activist Mary McLeod Bethune


From August 29-30, 1813, The Battle of Kulm was fought near the town Kulm (Chlumec) and the village Přestanov in northern Bohemia, during the War of the Sixth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars.

Digging Deeper

32,000 French troops under Dominique Vandamme attacked an army of about 50-60,000 Austrians, Russians and Prussians under Alexander Ostermann-Tolstoy. The French were defeated with heavy losses on both sides. The French lost some 5,000 killed or wounded and another 7,000-13,000 captured, including Vandamme, while the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian casualties and losses numbered around a similarly horrific 11,000 total.

For perspective, the total U.S. combat and civilian deaths in the recent wars in Afghanistan (2001-present) and Iraq (2003-2011) are currently at 2,356 and 4,497, respectively. Imagine suffering such losses in just one battle fought over just two days! Moreover, the Battle of Kulm was nowhere near being even the bloodiest of the war, but that is a much bigger story than this article and i f you are interested in learning about that war and its broader historical context, we have just the book for you!

Now that our book, Simply Napoleon, has been published on Amazon in eBook form, we will be launching a special promotion. The promo begins on August 30 and will run as follows:

8/30 — .99
8/31 — 1.99
9/1 — 2.99
9/2 — 3.99
9/3— 4.99

After this week, the book will return to its normal price of $7.99. So we encourage you to tell your friends and colleagues about this limited time promotion. The sale is for U.S. only customers.

Question for students (and subscribers): Have you read Simply Napoleon? Please let us know in the comments section below this article.

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Historical Evidence

For more information, please see…

Markham, J. David and Matthew Zarzeczny. Simply Napoleon. Simply Charly, 2017.

The featured image in this article, a painting by Alexander Kotzebue of the Battle of Kulm, is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The work of art itself is in the public domain for the following reason: This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author’s life plus 100 years or fewer.


Congressional Gold Medal Recipients

Since the American Revolution, Congress has commissioned gold medals as its highest expression of national appreciation for distinguished achievements and contributions. Each medal honors a particular individual, institution, or event. Although the first recipients included citizens who participated in the American Revolution, the War of 1812 and the Mexican War, Congress broadened the scope of the medal to include actors, authors, entertainers, musicians, pioneers in aeronautics and space, explorers, lifesavers, notables in science and medicine, athletes, humanitarians, public servants, and foreign recipients.

In addition to the requirement that all Congressional Gold Medal legislation must be cosponsored by at least two-thirds (290) of the Members of the House, specific standards are set forth by Rule X, 2 (h) of the House Committee on Financial Services Subcommittee on Domestic Policy and Technology when considering such legislation. Additionally, the Senate Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Committee requires that at least 67 Senators must cosponsor any Congressional Gold Medal legislation before the committee will consider it.


Fort Meigs

History is full of colorful characters and grand figures. Those that served at Fort Meigs are no exception.

To your posts then fellow Soldiers & remember that the eyes of your Country are upon you!

Major- General William Henry Harrison
April 29, 1813

Saturdays in June, July, and August Fort Meigs will be open until 7:00 p.m.

PLEASE NOTE: Beginning June 2, if you are fully vaccinated, masks are not required at Fort Meigs Historic Site. Masks are highly encouraged for unvaccinated individuals 12 and up. We will not require proof of vaccination, and ask that our staff and volunteers respectfully follow this policy. Masks may be worn by anyone who prefers to wear one.

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Built in 1813 to defend Ohio during the War of 1812, Fort Meigs successfully withstood two sieges by a combined British, Canadian, and Native American force.

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Hear muskets crack and cannons roar as history comes to life around you. Fort Meigs hosts numerous reenactments and special events each season, each with its own unique theme.

Captured Moments

View our extensive photo galleries for images of past events at Fort Meigs and be sure to check out some of the many other historic sites our volunteers have visited, too.


The Napoleonic Wargamer

After the defeat of Prussia in 1806, the Duchy of Brunswick was dissolved. The Field Marshal, Karl, Duke of Brunswick, overall commander of the Prussian Army was killed at the battle of Auerstadt. His son, Friedrich Wilhelm, fled to Austria.

With the outbreak of war between France and Austria in 1809, Friedrich organized a "Free-Corps" for the Austrian Army. The force consisted of one regiment of Infantry and one of Hussars. Their uniforms earned them the nickname of the "Black Horde". By July Austria was knocked out of the war and an armistice was at Znaim on 12th July, Friedrich didn't feel himself bound by this and he decided to fight his way out to the North German coast and thence to England. Remarkably he succeeded and after some fierce fighting he sailed for England on the 6th August

The Brunswick Hussars were formed as part of the reorganisation of the 'Black Horde' in England following their 'escape' from Germany and were subsequently sent to Spain in 1813.

Since the summer of 1812, an 8,000-strong Anglo-Sicilian force, joined by about 6,000 Spanish troops from Minorca, occupied the port of Alicante on the east coast of Spain. The army frequently changed generals but did nothing to contribute to the Anglo-Allied war effort. In February 1813, Sir John Murray was appointed to command the now 18,000-man force made up of
7,000 British and KGL troops, 3,000 Sicilians and Italians, with two Spanish divisions totalling 8,000 men, and was to conduct a series of amphibious operations along the Spanish coast.

After defeating Suchet at Castalla in April, Murray was ordered to move by sea to capture the port of Tarragona. By this maneuver, Wellington intended to distract Suchet from his summer 'Vittoria' Campaign. Murray landed on June 2nd, the raid, initially very successful, was badly managed by a timid Murray and developed into a farce, with a disgracefully and unnecessarily hurried withdrawal of the force back on to its ships in which many cannon were abandoned and for which Sir John Murray was later court-martialed. He was relieved of command on June 18th.

The Brunswick Hussars, two squadrons strong, totaling 18 Officers and 258 troopers landed at Alicante, direct from England, in February 1813. Along with two squadrons of the 20th Light Dragoons they formed the cavalry brigade under Lord F. Bentinck and took part in many of the actions under Murray.

Sir John Murray was replaced by Lieutenant General W. Bentinck and by August 1813 they were once again back besieging Tarragona.

As Lord W. Bentinck reports:
On the 3rd the Duke del Parque's corps came up to Tarragona as did the division of General Sarsfield on the 11th. General Elio could not spare the three regiments of the division of Migares, which I had requested him to send me.

0n the 10th I heard that Marshal Suchet had returned to Villa Franca from Barcelona, and had brought with him five thousand men. The reports of the succeeding days, left no doubt of it being his intention to move forward and on the 14th, I learned from the Baron d'Esoles and Colonel Manzo, that besides collecting all he could from the garrisons, he had been joined by Decaen with six thousand men.

In consequence of this intelligence, I suspended all operations for the siege of Tarragona, except the making of fascines, and landed neither artillery nor stores.

There was no position on the Gaya, as I had in my former letter supposed. There are only two carriageable roads across it, but they are at a distance of ten miles from each other. The river having no water in it, and being only impassable from the steepness of its banks, is passable for infantry every where. A corps placed in the centre could not reach either flank in time to prevent the passage of the enemy. General Whittingham, whom I had sent with his corps to the Cols of San Christina and Llebra, reported them not to be defensible, with so small a force as we could allot to this object.

I had intended to have pushed on to the Llebregat. Suchet's army was at one time divided between Barcelona and Villa Franca, and its environs. A rapid movement might possibly have enabled me to fall separately upon his advanced corps, and to obtain possession of the ridge of mountains on this side the Llobregat before he could have time to bring up his troops from Barcelona. I could not execute this movement before being joined by Sarsfield, and previously Suchet had concentrated his force in Villa Franca and it's neighbourhood. Suchet's force has been variously reported, from twenty to twenty-five thousand men.

The immediate vicinity of Tarragona offered a very good position in itself, but it may be completely turned by an enemy who, crossing the Cols, should approach Tarragona by Valls and Reus.

On the 14th Suchet moved a large corps upon Alta Fulla, but the road being close to the beach, the gun-boats prevented him from passing, if such were his intention.

On the 15th he drove back the posts on the Cols of San Christina and Llebra, and afterwards forced the corps at Brafia, by which they were supported, to retire.

Colonel Lord F. Bentinck had been ordered to observe the force crossing the Cols in the direction of Valls on the 15th and he reports on the actions of that day:
In obedience to your directions, I marched yesterday afternoon, with the brigade of cavalry under my command, beyond Nulles and Villabella, and reconnoitered the enemy's column, which was advancing upon Valls.

As soon as we began to retire, the enemy followed us both with cavalry and infantry, and a squadron of the 4th Hussars pressed closely upon our rear-guard, formed by Captain Wullfen's troop of the Brunswick Hussars, and attempted to charge and overpower it.

The enemy was opposed each time with determined spirit and resolution and Captain Erichcson, with his troop, being sent to the support of Captain Wulffen, the enemy were driven back, with the loss of one officer killed, another officer wounded, and between twenty and thirty men left sabred on the field. Sixteen prisoners and eleven horses fell into our hands.

I had sincere pleasure in observing the spirit displayed by tbe officers and men of the Brunswick Hussars. Lieutenant-Colonel Schrader, at all times zealous, was particularly useful on this occasion in restraining the impetuosity of his men. Circumstanced as we were, with a strong column of the enemy far advanced upon our right flank, and two battalions of infantry (as I was informed by the prisoners) upon our left and rear, and in an enclosed country, I did not deem it prudent to pursue the advantage we had gained. I regret to say that Cornet Redant, of the Brunswick Hussars, was wounded and taken, and I subjoin a return of the remainder of the wounded and missing.

Bentinck reported wounded and missing as:
Brunswick Hussars
6 privates wounded, 6 privates missing, 4 horses killed, 2 horses wounded, 2 horses missing.
20th Light Dragoons
2 privates, 2 horses missing.
Total loss: 1 officer, 13 privates, 16 horses.

With Suchet's continuing to advance towards Tarragona, Lord W. Bentinck abandoned the siege and retired on Cambrills.

Bibliography:
The Black Brunswickers - Osprey MAA-007 Otto Von Pivka
History of the Peninsular War Southey Vol VI p253
The European Magazine, and London Review, Volume 64 By Philological Society (Great Britain) p349
The Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 114 By John Nichols
The Gentleman's magazine, Volume 83, Part 2
Royal military panorama, or, Officers' companion, Volume 3
Cobbett's political register, Volume 24
A History of the Brtish Army - Volume IX 1813-1814 By J W Fortescue, Sir
My thanks to Steven H. Smith, Digby Smith and Ron McGuigan!


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Diagnostic Testing

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends testing for von Willebrand's disease in adolescents with severe menorrhagia, in adult women with menorrhagia, and in women undergoing hysterectomy for the sole indication of menorrhagia.14 A more stringent meta-analysis concluded that there are inadequate data to justify routine testing for all women with menorrhagia.13 Generally, if the patient has von Willebrand's disease, it is already known at the time of evaluation.

ACOG does not recommend a complete blood count, thyroid function test, or prolactin test for women with menorrhagia.1 Evidence-based guidelines from the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, however, recommend these tests, although thyroid function and bleeding disorders should be evaluated only if other historical or clinical features suggest specific conditions.15

ACOG lists menstrual irregularity as a risk factor for endometrial cancer,16 and it is reasonable to exclude cancer in adult women with persistent menorrhagia.15 This is particularly true in cases where it is difficult to determine whether the menorrhagia is caused by anatomic causes, such as fibroids or polyps, or is a function of abnormal uterine bleeding. An exception is in adolescents, in whom endometrial cancer is rare and in whom most abnormal uterine bleeding is a result of physiologic anovulation. Invasive diagnostic modalities include endometrial biopsy, transvaginal ultrasonography, saline infusion sonohysteroscopy, and hysteroscopy1 (Table 1 17 – 21 ) . Although abnormal uterine bleeding in adolescents is usually physiologic, reproductive-age women with menorrhagia require evaluation for a specific cause.1

Endometrial Evaluation for Women with Menorrhagia

Sensitivity, 91 percent false-positive rate in premenopausal women, 2 percent

To rule out neoplasia in adult women office procedure, well tolerated, anesthesia and cervical dilation usually not required limitations include cervical stenosis and insufficient samples if endometrial atrophy present

Sensitivity, 60 percent specificity, 93 percent

Less effective than saline infusion sonohysteroscopy for identification of intracavitary abnormalities

Saline infusion sonohysteroscopy

For fibroids, sensitivity, 87 percent specificity, 92 percent

Sterile isotonic fluid is infused into the uterus under continuous visualization of the endometrial surface with transvaginal ultrasonography

For polyps, sensitivity, 86 percent specificity, 81 percent

Negative predictive value, 94 percent when combined with endometrial biopsy

Sensitivity, 86 percent specificity, 99 percent

Highest cost may require cervical dilation does not reduce hysterectomy rate despite absence of intracavitary pathology used as the preferred method over other procedures

Information from references 17 through 21 .

Endometrial Evaluation for Women with Menorrhagia

Sensitivity, 91 percent false-positive rate in premenopausal women, 2 percent

To rule out neoplasia in adult women office procedure, well tolerated, anesthesia and cervical dilation usually not required limitations include cervical stenosis and insufficient samples if endometrial atrophy present

Sensitivity, 60 percent specificity, 93 percent

Less effective than saline infusion sonohysteroscopy for identification of intracavitary abnormalities

Saline infusion sonohysteroscopy

For fibroids, sensitivity, 87 percent specificity, 92 percent

Sterile isotonic fluid is infused into the uterus under continuous visualization of the endometrial surface with transvaginal ultrasonography

For polyps, sensitivity, 86 percent specificity, 81 percent

Negative predictive value, 94 percent when combined with endometrial biopsy

Sensitivity, 86 percent specificity, 99 percent

Highest cost may require cervical dilation does not reduce hysterectomy rate despite absence of intracavitary pathology used as the preferred method over other procedures

Information from references 17 through 21 .

The detection rate of endometrial cancer using endometrial biopsy is 91 percent, with a 2 percent false-positive rate in premenopausal women,17 making it an accurate diagnostic test for women with abnormal uterine bleeding.18 Greater sensitivity (97 percent) and negative predictive value (94 percent) can be achieved by combining endometrial biopsy with saline infusion sonohysteroscopy.19 Saline infusion sonohysteroscopy incorporates real-time ultrasonography with static images during infusion of sterile saline into the uterus.22 If bleeding persists despite a negative endometrial biopsy or saline infusion sonohysteroscopy, hysteroscopy (sensitivity 86 percent, specificity 99 percent) should be considered despite the cost and invasive nature of the procedure.23

The most common anatomic causes of menstrual disorders in premenopausal women are uterine polyps and submucous fibroids.20 Transvaginal ultrasonography (sensitivity 60 percent, specificity 93 percent) and endometrial biopsy are less effective than saline infusion sono-hysteroscopy for diagnosing intracavitary abnormalities. Saline infusion sonohysteroscopy is more accurate for detecting uterine fibroids (sensitivity 87 percent, specificity 92 percent) than for endometrial polyps (sensitivity 86 percent, specificity 81 percent) therefore, a negative test does not rule out intracavitary abnormalities.23 It is unknown if structural lesions missed on saline infusion sonohysteroscopy are diagnosed more efficiently with hysteroscopy.21 Saline infusion sonohysteroscopy is a more effective initial diagnostic test for intracavitary abnormalities in premenopausal women than transvaginal ultrasonography if the goal is to avoid expensive and invasive hysteroscopy.20 , 21 , 24


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1. John B. Hattendorf, "The American Navy in the World of Franklin and Jefferson, 1775-1826," War and Society , (1990) Spencer Tucker, The Jeffersonian Gunboat Navy (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1993) Gene A. Smith, "For the Purposes of Defense": The Politics of the Jeffersonian Gunboat Program (Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 1995).

2. Peter J. Kastor, "Toward 'the Maritime War Only': The Question of Naval Mobilization, 1811-1812," Journal of Military History , 61 (1997), pp. 455-80.

3. John C. A. Stagg, "James Madison and the Coercion of Great Britain: Canada, the West Indies, and the War of 1812," William and Mary Quarterly , 3rd ser., 38 (1981), pp. 32-4.

4. The Papers of Henry Clay , ed. James F. Hopkins, vol. 1, Rising Statesman , 1797-1814 (Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1959), p. 751.

5. Barry J. Lohnes, "British Naval Problems at Halifax during the War of 1812," Mariner's Mirror , 59 (1973), pp. 317-33.

6. Hansard's Parliamentary Debates , vol. 24, p. 643.

7. William S. Dudley (ed.), The Naval War of 1812: A Documentary History , vol. II (Washington, DC: Naval Historical Center, 1992), p. 183.

9. David Syrett, "The Role of the Royal Navy in the Napoleonic Wars after Trafalgar, 1805-1814," Naval War College Review (1977), pp. 71-84.

10. William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present , Vol. V (London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co, 1900), p. 9.

11. Dudley, Naval War of 1812 , Vol. II, p. 14.

13. Joseph A. Goldenberg, "The Royal Navy's Blockade in New England Waters, 1812-1815," International History Review , 6 (1984), pp. 424-39.

14. Dudley, Naval War of 1812 , Vol. II, p. 308.

15. Robert J. Allison, Stephen Decatur: American Naval Hero, 1779-1820 (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2005).

16. Theodore Roosevelt, The Naval War of 1812 (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1882 Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1987), pp. 358-64.

17. H. F. Pullen, The Shannon and the Chesapeake (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1970).

18. Ira Dye, The Fatal Cruise of the "Argus": Two Captains in the War of 1812 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2001).

19. John M. Sherwig, Guineas and Gunpowder: British Foreign Aid in the Wars with France, 1793-1815 (Cambridge, MA: Havard University Press, 1969) Gordon K. Harrington, "The American Naval Challenge to the English East India Company during the War of 1812," in Jack Sweetman (ed.), New Interpretations in Naval History (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1993), pp. 129-52.

20. N.A.M. Rodger, The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815 (London: W. W. Norton & Company, 2004), pp. 569-70.

21. Jan Glete, Navies and Nations: Warships, Navies and State Building in Europe and America, 1500-1860 (Stockholm, 1993), p. 395.

22. Faye Margaret Kert, Prize and Prejudice: Privateering and Naval Prize in Atlantic Canada in the War of 1812 (St Johns, Newfoundland: International Maritime Economic History Association, 1997) Antohoy Gutridge, "George Redmond Hulbert: Prize Agent at Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1812-14," Mariner's Mirror , 87 (2001), pp. 30-42.

23. Faye Margaret Kert, "The Fortunes of War: Commercial Warfare and Maritime Risk in the War of 1812," Northern Mariner , 8 (Oct. 1998), pp. 1-16.

24. The Papers of James Madison , Presidential Series, eds. J.C.A. Stagg, Martha J. King, Ellen J. Barber, etc., vol. 5, 10 July 1812 - 7 February 1813 (Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2004339-41.

25. Donald Hickey, "New England's Defense Problem and the Genesis of the Hartford Convention," New England Quarterly , 50 (1977), pp. 587-604.

26. C. J. Bartlett, "Gentlemen versus Democrats: Cultural Prejudice and Military Strategy in Britain in the War of 1812," War in History , 1 (1994), pp. 140-59.

27. Dudley, The Naval War of 1812 , Vol. II, pp. 364-65.

28. James Tertius de Kay, The Battle of Stonington: Torpedoes, Submarines, and Rockets in the War of 1812 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1990).

29. Theodore J. Crackel, "The Battle of Queenston Heights, 13 October 1812," in Charles E. Heller and William A. Stofft (eds), America's First Battles, 1776-1965 (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1986), p. 33.

30. Roger Morriss, Cockburn and the British Navy in Transition: Admiral Sir George Cockburn, 1772-1853 (Exeter, England: University of Exeter Press, 1997), pp. 83-120.

31. Trewman's Exeter Flying-Post , 2 March 1815.

2. Barry M. Gough, Fighting Sail on Lake Huron and Georgian Bay: The War of 1812 and Its Aftermath (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2002).

3. Robert Malcolmson, "HMS St. Lawrence: The Freshwater First-Rate," Mariner's Mirror , 83 (1997), pp. 419-33.

4. Wellington to Liverpool, 9 Nov. 1814, 2nd Duke of Wellington (eds.), Supplementary Despatches . . . of . . . Wellington , vol. 9 (London, 1862), p. 425.

5. Wellington to Sir George Murray, 22 Dec. 1814, Gurwood (ed.), Dispatches of . . . Wellington , XII (London, 1838), p. 224.

6. Alfred Thayer Mahan, Sea Power in Its Relations to the War of 1812 (Boston, MA: 1918), vol. 1, p. v.


Watch the video: Leipzig 1931 in Farbe Mit der Straßenbahn durch Leipzig, Deutschland (January 2022).