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June 24, 2013 Day 156 of the Fifth Year - History


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President Barack Obama talks with Rob Nabors, Deputy White House Chief of Staff for Policy, center, and Miguel Rodriguez, Director of Legislative Affairs, in the Oval Office, June 24, 2013.

11:00AM THE PRESIDENT receives the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office

11:45AM THE PRESIDENT meets with Secretary of the Treasury Lew
Oval Office

2:00PM THE PRESIDENT meets with CEOs, business owners and entrepreneurs, to discuss the importance of commonsense immigration reform
The Roosevelt Room


June 24, 2013 Day 156 of the Fifth Year - History

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The Maranello® 1961

An article written by Henry Hope-Frost, October 2017

Design Ethos

Maranello® is a tribute to one of the most determined stories in Motorsport, culminating in a win for Enzo Ferrari and for the Scuderia in 1961. The 8 race tracks of that F1 Season are etched in to the outside bezel of each watch, with the ones that were won by the Scuderia in Rosso Corsa and ones they lost in White.

The reason Watkins Glen is in white is that they'd won the F1 Championship by Monza, so Enzo told the winning driver, American Phil Hill, that they didn't need to race at the last race. This was Phil's home race which he had satisfy his fans by driving around in an open top Plymouth. Needless to say he wasn't happy.

The Grigio Sunray dial depicts the materials used on these cars, mainly aluminium and steel, with the red highlights from the race car.

Written by Henry Hope-Frost.

After two years of Enzo Ferrari licking his wounds, inflicted by British ‘garagiste’ Cooper Cars and its revolutionary and world-beating rear-engined racers, the team boss from Maranello had had enough. He needed to bounce back for 1961.

And his Maranello based mothership had nowhere to hide it had gone public in 1960, which put the world’s most famous car company – and, as a by-product, racing team – in an even brighter spotlight. Something had to be done. And fast.

The 1959 and ’60 Formula 1 World Championship seasons had been all about dynamic father-and-son duo Charles and John Cooper and their eponymous single-seaters, whose 2.5-litre Coventry Climax motivation came from behind the driver. And gritty racer/engineer Jack Brabham proved the best of them in this revolutionary phase of F1, the Australian taking back-to-back drivers’ world titles and helping the Surrey-based squad to a Constructors’ Championship double.

What they needed to do, having won only three races during Cooper’s two-year rout – two in 1959 and one, on home soil at Monza, in ’60 – was to revolutionise this revolution.

Before the fanfare, led by the Tifosi at Monza following American Phil Hill’s victory in the Italian Grand Prix aboard the 2.4-litre V6-powered Dino 246, had fully died down, work had begun on a new machine. And the answer to Enzo’s prayers came in the shape of one of Grand Prix racing’s most unique, exquisite, successful and shortlived challengers: the 156.

Penned by Carlo Chitti and dubbed ‘Sharknose’ on account of its pointed nose and distinctive nostrils, the 156 was conceived to maximise competitiveness in 1961, the first season of the mandatory 40 per cent reduction in engine capacity from 2.5 to 1.5-litres.

Having toiled night and day to avenge its opponents from Cooper and to fend off the burgeoning threat from Lotus and BRM, there were no excuses for Ferrari this time. Its unchanged driver line-up, comprising Hill, Wolfgang von Trips and Richie Ginther, was expected to deliver the goods.

The season began in Monaco on May 14 th , which ironically had given Maranello plenty of time to get its sportscar racing house in order. Endurance events had always been a key part of the Prancing Horse’s raison d’être and Hill and Belgian Olivier Gendebien had taken a third win in four years in the gruelling Sebring 12 Hours aboard the 250 Testa Rossa in March, with Gendenbien partnering Von Trips to victory in the equally arduous Sicilian Targa Florio road race a month later.

And all this before the trio of 156s, powered by sonorous 1.5-litre V6 engines, had arrived in Monte Carlo. The threat from Lotus proved very real when Stirling Moss, in Rob Walker’s four-cylinder 18, eclipsed the fastest Ferrari – Ginther’s – and the best of the works Lotus 21s, that of Jim Clark, for pole position.

Ginther used the Maranello cars grunt to lead Moss for 13 laps before the Englishman found a way past and managed the gap to the American to win by 3.6sec. Hill and von trips followed them home to make it a Maranello 2-3-4. First blood to Lotus, then, but at least World Champion Cooper had been nowhere.

Next time out, around the Dutch seaside swoops of Zandvoort just a week later, Hill led a teami 1-2-3 in qualifying, while Moss could only manage fourth. German nobleman Von Trips got the jump on Hill at the start and led all 75 laps to claim a maiden career win – and with it joint share of the championship lead with Moss.

Next came the magnificent rollercoaster ride that was the Spa-Francorchamps circuit in Belgium’s Ardennes forest for the Belgian GP on June 18 th , just a week after Hill and Gendebien had secured the teams third Le Mans 24 Hours victory in the past four years. Confidence was running high at Spa and Hill made it back-to-back poles, ahead of Von Trips and local boy Gendebien, making his first start with the team since 1959.

A team rout ensued after 30 laps, with Hill, von Trips, Ginther – up from fifth on the grid – and Gendebien securing an historic ‘Sharknose’ 1-2-3-4. As a result of his first win since Monza ’60, Hill jumped von Trips and Moss to lead the points standings as F1 1961 headed for Reims and the French GP on July 2 nd .

There was a familiar team 1-2-3 in qualifying around the superfast triangle of Reims, with Moss and Clark best of the rest for Lotus, but precious few had taken notice of Italian newboy Giancarlo Baghetti.

Making his very first World Championship Grand Prix start, in a fourth 156 run in the colours of the Federazione Italiana Scuderie Automobilische, the 27-year-old qualified an unspectacular 12 th . But, come race day, he fought his way to the front, taking advantage of engine failure for von Trips and a lap-losing spin for erstwhile leader Hill, to duke it out for the lead in a classic slipstreamer with Porsche’s Dan Gurney. Baghetti held on for a famous win by just 0.1sec.

With Hill clinging on to his points lead over von Trips with almost double the Constructors’ points over Lotus, the Maranello steamroller then headed to Aintree for the British Grand Prix on July 15 th .

Hill took a fourth straight pole, ahead of von Trips as their championship battle intensified. As had happened in Holland, von Trips won the day – and retook the title-race lead – having passed leader Hill after seven laps in heavy rain at the Liverpool venue.

Thanks to the absolute mastery of Stirling Moss, the team, was beaten around the 14-mile Nürburgring Nordschleife, home to the German GP on August 6 th . The Briton’s Rob Walker-run Lotus was only third on the grid as Hill made it a fifth straight pole, but Moss took the lead on the opening tour and stayed out front for 15 laps to win by more than 20 seconds from von Trips and Hill.

With two races to go, von Trips headed to Monza with a four-point advantage. And what happened that weekend outdid any Hollywood tearjerker from the pen of the most imaginative scriptwriter.

Von Trips secured pole in front of the fervent Tifosi, eclipsing Mexican Ferrari newboy Ricardo Rodriguez, Ginther and Hill. Only Graham Hill’s BRM pipping the fifth 156, the Scuderia Sant Ambroeus car of Baghetti, prevented a team 1-2-3-4-5 qualifying cleansweep.

One of the teams most bittersweet Grands Prix in its long history unfolded on Sunday September 10 th . While disputing fourth place von Trips tangled with Jim Clark’s Lotus on the run to the Parabolica at the end of the second lap – with tragic consequences. The #4 Ferrari was launched into the crowd where it killed 14 spectators before landing back on the track, its charismatic driver thrown out and killed within sight of a maiden world title.

A stunned Phil Hill won the race and with it the 1961 Drivers’ World Championship, the first American to do so. Celebrations were muted as a team, which had lifted its first Constructors’ crown, and a nation mourned its fallen ace.

The season finale, the United States Grand Prix at Watkins Glen on October 8 th , would’ve been a fitting way for Hill to end his Championship year, but Ferrari refused to send any cars having already wrapped up both titles. It was a move that privately incensed Hill, who had been a fast, consistent and, therefore, deserving Champion. He could hardly be blamed for wanting to celebrate in his home GP, despite what had befallen his friend and team-mate.

But il Commendatore and his glorious red cars had bounced back and that was all that mattered within the hallowed halls of Maranello.

After years of frustration and failures, it was 1961 that Enzo Ferrari finally had racing success with the American driver Phil Hill in 1961.

No other watch brand has celebrated this momentous year in Motorsport history. The circuits of that years racing calendar are laser etched in to the outer bezel of the case and with each win The Scuderia had we've highlighted those in Rosso Corsa.

Omologato bring you a chronograph that is totally bespoke, using ultra reliable Swiss Ronda movements.

SEE THE FULL PICTURE GALLERY HERE

Case:
Diameter: 45mm
Material: Chrome finish stainless steel
Dial Colour: Sunray Grigio finish
Movement: Swiss Ronda Meca-Quartz

Water Resistance: 10ATM

Glass : Flat Sapphire Glass

Strap: Mesh Racer Strap

Width: 22mm
Material: Italian leather
Colour: Black

Needles : The hour and minute needles are luminous

Maranello® is a trademark of Omologato Ltd and the name is protected under UK Law.


Texas man uses metal detector, makes stunning discovery

5 of 156 Ernesto Montenegro, Director of the Colombian Institute of Anthropology and History of Colombia, talks to the media while he shows a picture of remains of the Galleon San Jose during a press conference in Cartagena, Colombia, Saturday, Dec.5, 2015. Pedro Mendoza/AP Show More Show Less

7 of 156 A photo taken by Colombia's Anthropology and History Institute (ICANH) and distributed by Colombia's Ministry of Culture, shows sunken remains from the Spanish Galleon San Jose, on the sea floor off Cartagena, Colombia. AP Show More Show Less

8 of 156 The galleon went down more than 300 years ago with what may be the world's largest sunken treasure. The vessel, with 600 people aboard, is believed to have been carrying 11 million gold coins and jewels from then Spanish-controlled colonies as it was trying to outrun a fleet of British warships on June 8, 1708. Colombia's government say the ship was found on Nov. 27, 2015. AP Show More Show Less

10 of 156 Colombia's President Juan Manuel Santos announced the discovery of the remains of the Galleon San Jose, a Spanish boat eighteenth century empire that sank in the Caribbean Sea loaded with gold. Pedro Mendoza/AP Show More Show Less

11 of 156 This undated photo taken by Colombia's Anthropology and History Institute (ICANH) and distributed by Colombia's Ministry of Culture, shows sunken remains from the Spanish Galleon San Jose, on the sea floor off Cartagena, Colombia. AP Show More Show Less

13 of 156 A photo shows sunken remains from the Spanish Galleon San Jose, on the sea floor off Cartagena, Colombia. The galleon went down more than 300 years ago with what may be the world's largest sunken treasure. The vessel, with 600 people aboard, is believed to have been carrying 11 million gold coins and jewels from then Spanish-controlled colonies as it was trying to outrun a fleet of British warships on June 8, 1708. Colombia's government say the ship was found on Nov. 27, 2015.
Keep clicking to learn more some of the greatest sunken treasure discoveries. AP Show More Show Less

14 of 156 An Indonesian personnel holds a 10th century Chinese bronze mirror plate from the Five Dynasties (907-960) at a showroom in south Jakarta on April 28, 2010 The items are part of ancient treasure trove salvaged from a 1,000-year-old shipwreck found by Indonesian fishermen in the northern waters of Cirebon, West Java. Belgian treasure-hunter Luc Heymans said the haul was one of the biggest found in Asia and was comparable to the most valuable shipwreck ever found anywhere. It includes 271,000 pieces such as rubies, pearls, gold jewelry. ROMEO GACAD/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

16 of 156 Belgian treasure-hunter Luc Heymans holds a rare large vase from the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) among the 10th century Yue Mise imperial wares from the Five Dynasties (907-960). ROMEO GACAD/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

17 of 156 06/12/98 CREDIT: Gerald Martineau 1 mile off Chincoteague Island. diving for sunken treasure. Diver Tom Birch, assisted by Wes Speigel, plunges into the surf with a metal detector in hand to search for anomalies. The Washington Post/Washington Post/Getty Images Show More Show Less

19 of 156 Diver being assisted into a Siebe and Gorman diving suit preparatory to diving down to a sunken wreck to recover treasure. Illustration published 1870. UniversalImagesGroup/Getty Images Show More Show Less

20 of 156 UNSPECIFIED - CIRCA 1900: Greek civilization, 3rd century b.C. Bronze head of a philosopher. From Antikythera, Greece. (Photo By DEA / G. NIMATALLAH/De Agostini/Getty Images) DEA / G. NIMATALLAH/De Agostini/Getty Images Show More Show Less

22 of 156 BULGARIA - FEBRUARY 04: Gold figurine from the Treasures of Panagyurishte, Bulgaria. Goldsmith art. Thracian Civilization, 4th Century BC. Plovdiv, Arheologitcheski Muzej (Archaeological Museum) (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images) DEA PICTURE LIBRARY/De Agostini/Getty Images Show More Show Less

23 of 156 BULGARIA - JULY 12: Rython in the shape of a deer's head from the Treasures of Panagyurishte, Bulgaria. Thracian Civilization, 4th Century BC. Plovdiv, Arheologitcheski Muzej (Archaeological Museum) (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images) DEA PICTURE LIBRARY/De Agostini/Getty Images Show More Show Less

25 of 156 BULGARIA - JULY 12: Gold rython in the shape of a woman's head, from the Treasures of Panagyurishte, Bulgaria. Goldsmith art. Thracian Civilization, 4th Century BC. Plovdiv, Arheologitcheski Muzej (Archaeological Museum) (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images) DEA PICTURE LIBRARY/De Agostini/Getty Images Show More Show Less

26 of 156 Divers retrieving the treasure of the British liner Oceana, sunk on 16 March 1912 after a collision with the German steel barque Pisagna, near Eastbourne, Illustration from French newspaper Le Petit Journal, May 19, 1912, Private Collection, (Photo by Leemage/UIG via Getty Images) Leemage/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

28 of 156 Divers searching a shipwreck, sunk by the Germans during World War I, for treasures, Frontpage of French newspaper Le petit journal, May 23, 1920, Private Collection (Photo by Leemage/UIG via Getty Images) Leemage/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

29 of 156 BULGARIA - JUNE 15: Gold rhyton in the shape of a woman's head, from the Treasures of Panagyurishte, Plovdiv Region, Bulgaria. Goldsmith art. Thracian Civilization, 4th-3rd Century BC. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images) DEA / A. DAGLI ORTI/De Agostini/Getty Images Show More Show Less

31 of 156 GREECE - OCTOBER 14: The Antikythera Ephebe, bronze statue found in the sea between Citing and Anticitera (Greece). Greek Civilization, 4th Century BC. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images) DEA PICTURE LIBRARY/De Agostini/Getty Images Show More Show Less

32 of 156 (FILES) In this picture taken 04 February 2006, A golden hair ornament amongst artifacts on display at an exhibition of Bactrian Treasure at The Presidential Palace in Kabul. Afghanistan's parliament voted 16 May 2006, against a proposed world tour of the country's famed 2,000-year-old Bactrian gold, which resurfaced in 2003 after years of speculation that it had been looted or destroyed.There had been plans to display more than 200 pieces of the 21,000-object collection of ancient relics -- mainly gold jewellery -- in several museums including in Europe and the United States. AFP PHOTO/FARZANA Wahidy/FILES (Photo credit should read FARZANA WAHIDY/AFP/Getty Images) FARZANA WAHIDY/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

34 of 156 Silver coins recovered in the Spanish frigate Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes by the Odyssey Marine Exploration are displayed in Madrid on November 30, 2012. Tons of gold and silver from the wreck of the 19th-century Spanish warship arrived in Spain on February 25, 2012, more than 200 years after a British fleet sank it. The arrival of the cargo from the Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes sealed the end of a five-year legal battle between Spain and the US treasure hunters who hauled up the trove -- worth at least 350 million euros ($470 million). AFP PHOTO / PIERRE-PHILIPPE MARCOU (Photo credit should read PIERRE-PHILIPPE MARCOU/AFP/Getty Images) PIERRE-PHILIPPE MARCOU/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

35 of 156 Silver coins recovered in the Spanish frigate Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes by the Odyssey Marine Exploration are displayed in Madrid on November 30, 2012. Tons of gold and silver from the wreck of the 19th-century Spanish warship arrived in Spain on February 25, 2012, more than 200 years after a British fleet sank it. The arrival of the cargo from the Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes sealed the end of a five-year legal battle between Spain and the US treasure hunters who hauled up the trove -- worth at least 350 million euros ($470 million). AFP PHOTO / PIERRE-PHILIPPE MARCOU (Photo credit should read PIERRE-PHILIPPE MARCOU/AFP/Getty Images) PIERRE-PHILIPPE MARCOU/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

37 of 156 Silver coins recovered in the Spanish frigate Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes by the Odyssey Marine Exploration are displayed in Madrid on November 30, 2012. Tons of gold and silver from the wreck of the 19th-century Spanish warship arrived in Spain on February 25, 2012, more than 200 years after a British fleet sank it. The arrival of the cargo from the Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes sealed the end of a five-year legal battle between Spain and the US treasure hunters who hauled up the trove -- worth at least 350 million euros ($470 million). AFP PHOTO / PIERRE-PHILIPPE MARCOU (Photo credit should read PIERRE-PHILIPPE MARCOU/AFP/Getty Images) PIERRE-PHILIPPE MARCOU/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

38 of 156 Silver coins recovered in the Spanish frigate Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes by the Odyssey Marine Exploration are displayed in Madrid on November 30, 2012. Tons of gold and silver from the wreck of the 19th-century Spanish warship arrived in Spain on February 25, 2012, more than 200 years after a British fleet sank it. The arrival of the cargo from the Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes sealed the end of a five-year legal battle between Spain and the US treasure hunters who hauled up the trove -- worth at least 350 million euros ($470 million). AFP PHOTO / PIERRE-PHILIPPE MARCOU (Photo credit should read PIERRE-PHILIPPE MARCOU/AFP/Getty Images) PIERRE-PHILIPPE MARCOU/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

40 of 156 Scuba diver salvaging water cask, from the 'Pandora', British warship sent to pursue the 'Bounty' mutineers and wrecked in 1791. Pandora Reef, northern Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. (Photo by Auscape/UIG via Getty Images) Auscape/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

41 of 156 Windlass from barque 'Fatima' wrecked in 1854, Detached Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. (Photo by Auscape/UIG via Getty Images) Auscape/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

43 of 156 JUN 15 1989 Brad Jensen Age Five And A Half Through He Had Found Sunken Treasure When He Found A Bag Ful Of Jewelsand Money In The Lake At 48th And Garrison he Was Honored By The Arvada Police Department (Photo By Dave Buresh/The Denver Post via Getty Images) Dave Buresh/Denver Post via Getty Images Show More Show Less

44 of 156 Visa Gold Explorations Inc. a Canadian Shipwreck Company unveils 071802 Treasure, bronze Neptune and perfume bottles with the fragrance still inside, from the Palemon shipwreck of 1839, shown at Trevor Allen Gallery, Queen's Quay west This is the first exhibit ever outside of Cuba. (Dick Loek,Toronto Star) Dick Loek/TORONTO STAR Show More Show Less

46 of 156 Gold foils from the Staffordshire Hoard. Anglo-Saxon Art, from the 4th to the 7th Century (Photo by Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images) Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

47 of 156 A man looks at 15th-16th century Vietnamese ceramics and porcelains on display at an exhibition of ancient porcelain and ceramic recovered from sunk ancient commercial ships being held 07 September 2003 at the National History Museum in Hanoi. The exhibition showed off for the first time a small number of Vietnamese, Chinese and Thai ceramic and porcelain objects dating back to the 15th century which were recovered from 5 ancient shipwrecks on seabed off Central and Southern Vietnam. Vietnam has began to search and recover these treasures since early 1990s. The government has put on auction a part of the recovered treasure. AFP PHOTO/HOANG DINH NAM (Photo credit should read HOANG DINH NAM/AFP/Getty Images) HOANG DINH NAM/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

49 of 156 A visitor gets a close look at utensils from an ancient boat's crew on display at an exhibition of ancient porcelain and ceramics recovered from sunk ancient commercial ships being held 07 September 2003 at the National History Museum in Hanoi. The exhibition showed off for the first time a small number of Vietnamese, Chinese and Thai ceramics and porcelain objects dating back to the 15th century which were recovered from 5 ancient shipwrecks on the seabed off Central and Southern Vietnam. Vietnam has began to search and recover these treasures since early the 1990s. The government has put on auction a part of the recovered treasure. AFP PHOTO/HOANG DINH NAM (Photo credit should read HOANG DINH NAM/AFP/Getty Images) HOANG DINH NAM/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

50 of 156 A man looks at 15th-16th century Vietnamese ceramics and porcelains on display at an exhibition of ancient porcelain and ceramic recovered from sunk ancient commercial ships being held 07 September 2003 at the National History Museum in Hanoi. The exhibition showed off for the first time a small number of Vietnamese, Chinese and Thai ceramic and porcelain objects dating back to the 15th century which were recovered from 5 ancient shipwrecks on seabed off Central and Southern Vietnam. Vietnam has began to search and recover these treasures since early 1990s. The government has put on auction a part of the recovered treasure. AFP PHOTO/HOANG DINH NAM (Photo credit should read HOANG DINH NAM/AFP/Getty Images) HOANG DINH NAM/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

52 of 156 TO GO WITH AFP STORY BY SOPHIE MAKRIS - A picture taken at the Archaeological Museum in Athens on September 14, 2014 shows a piece of the so-called Antikythera Mechanism, a 2nd-century BC device known as the world's oldest computer, which was discovered by sponge divers in 1900 off a remote Greek island in the Aegean,. The mechanism is a complex mechanical computer which tracked astronomical phenomena and the cycles of the Solar System . AFP PHOTO / LOUISA GOULIAMAKI (Photo credit should read LOUISA GOULIAMAKI/AFP/Getty Images) LOUISA GOULIAMAKI/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

53 of 156 TO GO WITH AFP STORY BY SOPHIE MAKRIS - A picture taken at the Archaeological Museum in Athens on September 14, 2014 shows pieces of the so-called Antikythera Mechanism, a 2nd-century BC device known as the world's oldest computer, which was discovered by sponge divers in 1900 off a remote Greek island in the Aegean,. The mechanism is a complex mechanical computer which tracked astronomical phenomena and the cycles of the Solar System . AFP PHOTO / LOUISA GOULIAMAKI (Photo credit should read LOUISA GOULIAMAKI/AFP/Getty Images) LOUISA GOULIAMAKI/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

55 of 156 TO GO WITH AFP STORY BY SOPHIE MAKRIS - A picture taken at the Archaeological Museum in Athens on September 14, 2014 shows pieces of the so-called Antikythera Mechanism, a 2nd-century BC device known as the world's oldest computer, which was discovered by sponge divers in 1900 off a remote Greek island in the Aegean,. The mechanism is a complex mechanical computer which tracked astronomical phenomena and the cycles of the Solar System . AFP PHOTO / LOUISA GOULIAMAKI (Photo credit should read LOUISA GOULIAMAKI/AFP/Getty Images) LOUISA GOULIAMAKI/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

56 of 156 TO GO WITH AFP STORY BY SOPHIE MAKRIS - A woman walks by a statue of a youth displayed at the Archaeological Museum in Athens, on September 14, 2014. The statue was found in the wreck of a cargo ship apparently carrying booty to Rome, which lies between Crete and the Peloponnese close to Antikythera. "We have good signs that there are other objects present," said Angeliki Simosi, head of Greece's directorate of underwater antiquities, after exploratory dives in the area in 2012 and 2013. AFP PHOTO / LOUISA GOULIAMAKI (Photo credit should read LOUISA GOULIAMAKI/AFP/Getty Images) LOUISA GOULIAMAKI/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

58 of 156 TO GO WITH AFP STORY BY VESSELA SERGUEVA A photo taken on March 9, 2015, shows a gold amphora of theThracian Panagyurishte treasure, dating back to 4th century BC at the National History Museum in Sofia. Exquisitely crafted gold, silver and bronze objects will go on display at the Louvre museum in Paris this week, giving visitors a rare glimpse of the ancient Thracian culture that produced them. Many stories still remain untold about this refined civilisation whose citizens included Orpheus, the mythical son of a Thracian king, and legendary gladiator Spartacus who led an uprising against Rome. AFP PHOTO / DIMITAR DILKOFF (Photo credit should read DIMITAR DILKOFF/AFP/Getty Images) DIMITAR DILKOFF/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

59 of 156 TO GO WITH AFP STORY BY VESSELA SERGUEVA A photo taken on March 9, 2015, shows the Thracian Panagyurishte treasure, dating back to 4th century BC at the National History Museum in Sofia. Exquisitely crafted gold, silver and bronze objects will go on display at the Louvre museum in Paris this week, giving visitors a rare glimpse of the ancient Thracian culture that produced them. Many stories still remain untold about this refined civilisation whose citizens included Orpheus, the mythical son of a Thracian king, and legendary gladiator Spartacus who led an uprising against Rome. AFP PHOTO / DIMITAR DILKOFF (Photo credit should read DIMITAR DILKOFF/AFP/Getty Images) DIMITAR DILKOFF/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

61 of 156 TO GO WITH AFP STORY BY VESSELA SERGUEVA A photo taken on March 9, 2015, shows shows a gold Rhyton (drinking horn) of the Thracian Panagyurishte treasure, dating back to 4th century BC at the National History Museum in Sofia. Exquisitely crafted gold, silver and bronze objects will go on display at the Louvre museum in Paris this week, giving visitors a rare glimpse of the ancient Thracian culture that produced them. Many stories still remain untold about this refined civilisation whose citizens included Orpheus, the mythical son of a Thracian king, and legendary gladiator Spartacus who led an uprising against Rome. AFP PHOTO / DIMITAR DILKOFF (Photo credit should read DIMITAR DILKOFF/AFP/Getty Images) DIMITAR DILKOFF/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

62 of 156 TO GO WITH AFP STORY BY VESSELA SERGUEVA A photo taken on March 9, 2015, shows the Thracian Panagyurishte treasure, dating back to 4th century BC at the National History Museum in Sofia. Exquisitely crafted gold, silver and bronze objects will go on display at the Louvre museum in Paris this week, giving visitors a rare glimpse of the ancient Thracian culture that produced them. Many stories still remain untold about this refined civilisation whose citizens included Orpheus, the mythical son of a Thracian king, and legendary gladiator Spartacus who led an uprising against Rome. AFP PHOTO / DIMITAR DILKOFF (Photo credit should read DIMITAR DILKOFF/AFP/Getty Images) DIMITAR DILKOFF/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

64 of 156 LONDON, ENGLAND - MARCH 25: People view historic artifacts on display from the 'Cuerdale Hoard' in the new gallery 'Sutton Hoo and Europe AD 300-1100' in the British Museum on March 25, 2014 in London, England. The exhibition in the museum's early medieval collections marks 75 years since the discovery of the Sutton Hoo treasure. The gallery's centrepiece are the archelogical finds from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk one of Britain's most spectacular and important discoveries. The exhibition opens to the general public on March 27, 2014. (Photo by Oli Scarff/Getty Images) Oli Scarff/Getty Images Show More Show Less

65 of 156 LONDON, ENGLAND - MARCH 25: A woman views historic artifacts on display from the 'Cuerdale Hoard' in the new gallery 'Sutton Hoo and Europe AD 300-1100' in the British Museum on March 25, 2014 in London, England. The exhibition in the museum's early medieval collections marks 75 years since the discovery of the Sutton Hoo treasure. The gallery's centrepiece are the archelogical finds from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk one of Britain's most spectacular and important discoveries. The exhibition opens to the general public on March 27, 2014. (Photo by Oli Scarff/Getty Images) Oli Scarff/Getty Images Show More Show Less

67 of 156 LONDON, ENGLAND - MARCH 25: Historic artifacts on display from the 'Cuerdale Hoard' in the new gallery 'Sutton Hoo and Europe AD 300-1100' in the British Museum on March 25, 2014 in London, England. The exhibition in the museum's early medieval collections marks 75 years since the discovery of the Sutton Hoo treasure. The gallery's centrepiece are the archelogical finds from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk one of Britain's most spectacular and important discoveries. The exhibition opens to the general public on March 27, 2014. (Photo by Oli Scarff/Getty Images) Oli Scarff/Getty Images Show More Show Less

68 of 156 LONDON, ENGLAND - MARCH 25: A woman views historic artifacts on display from the 'Cuerdale Hoard' in the new gallery 'Sutton Hoo and Europe AD 300-1100' in the British Museum on March 25, 2014 in London, England. The exhibition in the museum's early medieval collections marks 75 years since the discovery of the Sutton Hoo treasure. The gallery's centrepiece are the archelogical finds from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk one of Britain's most spectacular and important discoveries. The exhibition opens to the general public on March 27, 2014. (Photo by Oli Scarff/Getty Images) Oli Scarff/Getty Images Show More Show Less

70 of 156 Interior of the Western Australian Museum, Geraldton, a section devoted to the discovery of the sunken HMAS Sydney, Geraldton, Mid West region, Western Australia (Photo by: Auscape/UIG via Getty Images) Auscape/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

71 of 156 Ceramic bowls are displayed at the Asian Civilisation Museum during a preview of items recovered from a Tang-era shipwreck in Singapore on November 9, 2015. The shipwreck, discovered in 1998 off Belitung island in the Java sea, carried a cargo of more than 60,000 ceramics from China during the Tang dynasty, including gold and silver objects. AFP PHOTO / ROSLAN RAHMAN (Photo credit should read ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images) ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

73 of 156 A visitor looks at artifacts at the Asian Civilisation Museum during a preview of items recovered from a Tang-era shipwreck in Singapore on November 9, 2015. The shipwreck, discovered in 1998 off Belitung island in the Java sea, carried a cargo of more than 60,000 ceramics from China during the Tang dynasty, including gold and silver objects. AFP PHOTO / ROSLAN RAHMAN (Photo credit should read ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images) ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

74 of 156 Ceramic bowls are displayed at the Asian Civilisation Museum during a preview of items recovered from a Tang-era shipwreck in Singapore on November 9, 2015. The shipwreck, discovered in 1998 off Belitung island in the Java sea, carried a cargo of more than 60,000 ceramics from China during the Tang dynasty, including gold and silver objects. AFP PHOTO / ROSLAN RAHMAN (Photo credit should read ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images) ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

76 of 156 A gold octagonal cup is seen on display at the Asian Civilisation Museum during a preview of items recovered from a Tang-era shipwreck in Singapore on November 9, 2015. The shipwreck, discovered in 1998 off Belitung island in the Java sea, carried a cargo of more than 60,000 ceramics from China during the Tang dynasty, including gold and silver objects. AFP PHOTO / ROSLAN RAHMAN (Photo credit should read ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images) ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

77 of 156 The Cuerdale Hoard, This is a selection from the largest Viking silver hoard known from Western Europe. It was discovered in 1840, buried beside the River Ribble at Cuerdale, Lancashire. The hoard contains some 7500 coins, plus objects in silver. dated to Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

79 of 156 Coins from the Hoxne hoard, Roman Britain, buried in the 5th century. Found in Hoxne, Suffolk in 1992, it contained jewellery and a variety of precious tableware, buried for safety around the time of the Roman withdrawal from Britain. The Hoxne hoard is the richest find of treasure from Roman Britain. From the British Museum's collection. (Photo by CM Dixon/Print Collector/Getty Images) 1996-98 AccuSoft Inc., All rights reserved/Print Collector/Getty Images Show More Show Less

80 of 156 Bracelet from the Hoxne hoard, Roman Britain, buried in the 5th century. The bracelet is decorated with figured scenes in relief. Found in Hoxne, Suffolk in 1992, it contained jewellery and a variety of precious tableware, buried for safety around the time of the Roman withdrawal from Britain. The Hoxne hoard is the richest find of treasure from Roman Britain. From the British Museum's collection. (Photo by CM Dixon/Print Collector/Getty Images) 1996-98 AccuSoft Inc., All rights reserved/Print Collector/Getty Images Show More Show Less

82 of 156 'Empress' pepper pot from the Hoxne hoard, Roman Britain, buried in the 5th century. The pepper pot is in the form of a silver bust of an Imperial lady of the late-Roman period. Found in Hoxne, Suffolk in 1992, it contained jewellery and a variety of precious tableware, buried for safety around the time of the Roman withdrawal from Britain. The Hoxne hoard is the richest find of treasure from Roman Britain. From the British Museum's collection (Photo by CM Dixon/Print Collector/Getty Images) 1996-98 AccuSoft Inc., All rights reserved/Print Collector/Getty Images Show More Show Less

83 of 156 Coins from the Cuerdale Hoard, mostly English with some from the continent, including Hedeby and Kueic coins. Found near Rebbes, Lancashire in 1840. (Photo by CM Dixon/Print Collector/Getty Images) 1996-98 AccuSoft Inc., All rights reserved/Print Collector/Getty Images Show More Show Less

85 of 156 SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE: Rare ceramic items from a sunken shipment of Tang Dynasty treasures are shown to the media in Singapore, 02 December 2004. The management of the Sentosa resort island in Singapore is in negotiations to buy the entire collection of 60,000 pieces, including gold artifacts, found by Tilman Walterfang's company in 1998 from the remains of an Arab "dhow" in what are now Indonesian waters. The vessel is believed to date back to the ninth century, which would make it the oldest shipwreck ever found in Southeast Asia. AFP PHOTO/ROSLAN RAHMAN (Photo credit should read ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images) ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

86 of 156 SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE: Utensils from a sunken shipment of Tang Dynasty treasures are shown to the media in Singapore, 02 December 2004. The management of the Sentosa resort island in Singapore is in negotiations to buy an entire collection of 60,000 pieces, including gold artifacts, found by a German sunken treasure hunter, Tilman Walterfang, in 1998 from the remains of an Arab "dhow" in what are now Indonesian waters. The vessel is believed to date back to the ninth century, which would make it the oldest shipwreck ever found in Southeast Asia. AFP PHOTO/ROSLAN RAHMAN (Photo credit should read ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images) ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

88 of 156 SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE: Two Tang Dynasty gold plates from a collection with Buddhist and Islamic motifs are shown to the media in Singapore, 02 December 2004. The management of the Sentosa resort island in Singapore is in negotiations to buy an entire collection of 60,000 pieces found by a German sunken treasure hunter, Tilman Walterfang, in 1998 from the remains of an Arab "dhow" in what are now Indonesian waters. The vessel is believed to date back to the ninth century, which would make it the oldest shipwreck ever found in Southeast Asia. AFP PHOTO/ROSLAN RAHMAN (Photo credit should read ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images) ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

89 of 156 (GERMANY OUT) Diver discover Artifacts at Wreck of USS Carlisle Attack Transporter, Marshall Islands, Bikini Atoll, Micronesia, Pacific Ocean (Photo by Reinhard Dirscherl/ullstein bild via Getty Images) ullstein bild/ullstein bild via Getty Images Show More Show Less

91 of 156 (GERMANY OUT) Diver finds Artifacts on Flight Deck of USS Saratoga, Marshall Islands, Bikini Atoll, Micronesia, Pacific Ocean (Photo by Reinhard Dirscherl/ullstein bild via Getty Images) ullstein bild/ullstein bild via Getty Images Show More Show Less

92 of 156 (GERMANY OUT) Wreckage of USS Saratoga, Marshall Islands, Bikini Atoll, Micronesia, Pacific Ocean (Photo by Reinhard Dirscherl/ullstein bild via Getty Images) ullstein bild/ullstein bild via Getty Images Show More Show Less

94 of 156 (GERMANY OUT) Diver finds Artifacts on Flight Deck of USS Saratoga, Marshall Islands, Bikini Atoll, Micronesia, Pacific Ocean (Photo by Reinhard Dirscherl/ullstein bild via Getty Images) ullstein bild/ullstein bild via Getty Images Show More Show Less

95 of 156 Athens, GREECE: A reconstruction of Antikythera Mechanism is on display at the exhibition of Ancient Greek Technology in Athens, part of the 2nd International Conference on the ancient technologym, 17 October 2005. The Antikythera Mechanism, is a unique find and the most sophisticated device preserved from ancient Greece(1st c.BC). It consists of at least 29 gears of various sizes that were made to move simultaneusly via a handle. Among them is a differential gear. According to scholars, it is an astronomical instrument of great precision. AFP PHOTO/Louisa Gouliamaki (Photo credit should read LOUISA GOULIAMAKI/AFP/Getty Images) LOUISA GOULIAMAKI/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

97 of 156 Kabul, AFGHANISTAN: Afghan President Hamid Karzai is reflected in a glass case housing a golden necklace on display at an exhibition of Bactrian Treasure at The Presidential Palace, in Kabul 04 February 2006. 25 objects out of more than a collection of 2000 has been placed on display for the first time since 1989. Houses in a national vault, the collection survived more than a decade long civil war in which two thirds of the relics from the national museum were plundered. AFP PHOTO/FARZANA Wahidy (Photo credit should read FARZANA WAHIDY/AFP/Getty Images) FARZANA WAHIDY/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

98 of 156 Kabul, AFGHANISTAN: A ceremonial golden medallion known as the "Cybele Plaque" is amongst artifacts on display at an exhibition of Bactrian Treasure at The Presidential Palace, in Kabul, 04 February 2006. 25 objects out of more than a collection of 2000 has been placed on display for the first time since 1989. Houses in a national vault, the collection survived more than a decade long civil war in which two thirds of the relics from the national museum were plundered. AFP PHOTO/FARZANA Wahidy (Photo credit should read FARZANA WAHIDY/AFP/Getty Images) FARZANA WAHIDY/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

100 of 156 Sofia, BULGARIA: Visitors look at an amphora rhyton, part of the Thracian Panagyurishte Treasure dated 4th century B.C., and probably possesed by the Thracian king Sewth III, at the National History Museum in Sofia, 01 April 2006. One of the oldest Thracian treasures contains 9 gold ritual vessels and weighs 6.164 kilos.The Thracians were a numerous and powerful people who inhabited this region from the fourth millennium BC, and were famous as goldsmiths. AFP PHOTO / VALENTINA PETROVA (Photo credit should read VALENTINA PETROVA/AFP/Getty Images) AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

101 of 156 Sofia, BULGARIA: Visitors look at the Thracian Panagyurishte treasure dating back to the 4th century B.C. 01 April 2006 at the National History Museum in Sofia. One of the oldest Thracian treasures, probably possessed by the Thracian king Sewth III, was accidentally unearthed by three farmers in 1949. Treasure-hunting has become a profession in Archar, in north-western Bulgaria, where the 1,500 inhabitants, like many others around the country, earn their living by digging up and selling precious finds from the buried Roman settlement of Ratsiaria. AFP PHOTO / VALENTINA PETROVA ******TO GO WITH AFP STORY BULGARIA-ARCHEOLOGY-HERITAGE-CRIME (Photo credit should read VALENTINA PETROVA/AFP/Getty Images) AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

103 of 156 KEY WEST, FL - APRIL 10: Captain Andy Matroci (R), of Mel Fisher Treasures, shows two gold bars and several silver coins to his son, Andy, April 10, 2006, in Key West, Florida. Valued at about $500,000, the two bars and 15 coins were recovered by divers April 9 about 35 miles west of Key West and are believed to be from the shipwreck of the Nuestra Senora de Atocha, a Spanish galleon that sank in 1622. The Atocha's mother lode was originally discovered by Fisher's divers in 1985. Because the bars bear tax stamps, indicating they were legitimate cargo, searchers hope the find will lead to the discovery of the vessel's treasure-laden sterncastle, which has yet to be located. (Photo by Rob O'Neal/Florida Keys News Bureau via Getty Images) Handout/Getty Images Show More Show Less

104 of 156 Kabul, AFGHANISTAN: (FILES) In this picture taken 04 February 2006, Afghan President Hamid Karzai (2L) gestures as he views artifacts on display at an exhibition of Bactrian treasure at The Presidential Palace, in Kabul. Afghanistan's parliament voted 16 May 2006, against a proposed world tour of the country's famed 2,000-year-old Bactrian gold, which resurfaced in 2003 after years of speculation that it had been looted or destroyed. There had been plans to display more than 200 pieces of the 21,000-object collection of ancient relics -- mainly gold jewellery -- in several museums including in Europe and the United States. AFP PHOTO/FARZANA Wahidy/FILES (Photo credit should read FARZANA WAHIDY/AFP/Getty Images) FARZANA WAHIDY/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

106 of 156 GREECE - JUNE 21: Bronze horse belonging to a chariot, found in a wreck off the island of Antikythera, Greece. Greek civilisation, 1st century BC. Athens, Ethnikó Arheologikó Moussío (National Archaeological Museum) (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images) DEA / ARCHIVIO J. LANGE/De Agostini/Getty Images Show More Show Less

107 of 156 Anglo-Saxon shield from the Staffordshire Hoard. Dated 6th Century. (Photo by Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images) Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

109 of 156 Mount from the Staffordshire Hoard. Dated 6th Century. (Photo by Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images) Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

110 of 156 Mount from the Staffordshire Hoard. Dated 6th Century. (Photo by Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images) Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

112 of 156 Gold hilt plates from the handles of swords from the Anglo-Saxon Staffordshire Hoard. Dated 6th Century. (Photo by Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images) Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

113 of 156 Fragments of a silver mount with gilt boarders and niello inlay, from the Staffordshire Hoard. Dated 6th Century. (Photo by Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images) Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

115 of 156 Artefact from the Staffordshire Hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork. Discovered in a field near the village of Hammerwich, near Lichfield, in Staffordshire, England, on 5 July 2009, it consists of over 3,500 items from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images) Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

116 of 156 Artefact from the Staffordshire Hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork. Discovered in a field near the village of Hammerwich, near Lichfield, in Staffordshire, England, on 5 July 2009, it consists of over 3,500 items from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images) Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

118 of 156 Cloisonné and garnet, decorative gold strip from the Staffordshire Hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork. Discovered in a field near the village of Hammerwich, near Lichfield, in Staffordshire, England, on 5 July 2009, it consists of over 3,500 items from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images) Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

119 of 156 Artefact from the Staffordshire Hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork. Discovered in a field near the village of Hammerwich, near Lichfield, in Staffordshire, England, on 5 July 2009, it consists of over 3,500 items from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images) Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

121 of 156 Jewellery buried with a woman. From the Anglo-Saxon, Beckford grave part of the Staffordshire Hoard, excavated at Beckford, Worcestershire, in the 1950s. Burials dating to around 475-550 AD. (Photo by Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images) Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

122 of 156 The Folded Cross, from the Staffordshire Hoard. The Staffordshire Hoard is a collection of Anglo-Saxon. Discovered in a field near the village of Hammerwich, near Lichfield, in Staffordshire, England, in 2009. it consists of over 3, 500 items, dated to the 7th or 8th centuries, placing the origin of the items in the time of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia. Before it was put in the hoard, the cross was intentionally dismantled. The mounts fixed to it were prised off and all but two of the garnets set in them were removed. (Photo by Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images) Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images Show More Show Less

124 of 156 HICKSVILLE, NY- MARCH 9: An 8 Reales Silver coin dated 1783 from The Franklin Mint's collection of treasure recovered from the sunken spanish ship "El Cazador" is seen in a vault at The Franklin Mint offices on March 9, 2007 in Hicksville, New York. (Photo by Scott Gries/Getty Images for The Franklin Mint) Scott Gries/Getty Images for The Franklin Mi Show More Show Less

125 of 156 HICKSVILLE, NY- MARCH 9: An 8 Reales Silver coin dated 1783 is seen on top a cluster of coins yet to be cleaned from The Franklin Mint's collection of treasure recovered from the sunken spanish ship "El Cazador" is seen in a vault at The Franklin Mint offices on March 9, 2007 in Hicksville, New York. (Photo by Scott Gries/Getty Images for The Franklin Mint) Scott Gries/Getty Images for The Franklin Mi Show More Show Less

127 of 156 HICKSVILLE, NY- MARCH 9: M. Moshe Malamud, Chairman of The Franklin Mint, holds a large cluster of 8 Reales Silver coins from The Franklin Mint's collection of treasure recovered from the sunken spanish ship "El Cazador" in a vault at The Franklin Mint offices on March 9, 2007 in Hicksville, New York. (Photo by Scott Gries/Getty Images for The Franklin Mint) *** Local Caption *** M. Moshe Malamud Scott Gries/Getty Images for The Franklin Mi Show More Show Less

128 of 156 HICKSVILLE, NY- MARCH 9: A broken olive jar with treasure coins The Franklin Mint's collection of treasure recovered from the sunken spanish ship "El Cazador" is seen among other artifacts from the ship in a vault at The Franklin Mint offices on March 9, 2007 in Hicksville, New York. (Photo by Scott Gries/Getty Images for The Franklin Mint) Scott Gries/Getty Images for The Franklin Mi Show More Show Less

130 of 156 HICKSVILLE, NY- MARCH 9: The prized ship's bell from El Cazador is seen (with a lithograph image of El Cazador in the background) in a vault with The Franklin Mint's collection of treasure recovered from the sunken spanish ship "El Cazador" at The Franklin Mint offices on March 9, 2007 in Hicksville, New York. (Photo by Scott Gries/Getty Images for The Franklin Mint) Scott Gries/Getty Images for The Franklin Mi Show More Show Less

131 of 156 Russian President Vladimir Putin(R) and his Bulgarian counterpart Georgi Parvanov look at a part of the Thracian Panagyurishte Treasure dating from the 4th century B.C., which possibly belonged to the Thracian king Sewth III on display at the National History Museum in Sofia, 18 January, 2008. AFP PHOTO/POOL/ GEORGI GEORGIEV (Photo credit should read GEORGI GEORGIEV/AFP/Getty Images) AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

133 of 156 PARIS, FRANCE - OCTOBER 17, 2006: A gold goddess pendant called "Bactrian Aphrodite", from the first century, discovered in 1978 on the archeological site of Tillia Tepe (northern Afghanistan) and exhibited at the "Afghanistan, Rediscovered Treasures" exhibition at Musee Guimet in Paris, France. The national museum in Kabul, which is currently being completely rebuilt after twenty years of war, is exhibiting its treasures at the Guimet museum in Paris. The museum is helping to restore a part of Afghanistan's cultural heritage, most of which has been destroyed forever by decades of war and looting. Before the wars the Kabul museum had built up the most opulent collection in Central Asia, spanning 50,000 years of Afghan cultural history. But during the years before the Taliban capture of Kabul in 1996, 80 percent of the treasures were looted. The exhibition opens on December 2006. (Photo by Francois Durand/Getty Images) Francois Durand/Getty Images Show More Show Less

134 of 156 YOKOHAMA, JAPAN - JUNE 19: Huge ancient stone statues are installed in preparation for the "Egyptian Sunken Treasure" exhibition at Pacifico Yokohama on June 19, 2009 in Yokohama, Japan. The exhibition will open on June 27 and run until September 23. (Photo by Junko Kimura/Getty Images) Junko Kimura/Getty Images Show More Show Less

136 of 156 BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND - SEPTEMBER 24: A strip of gold with a biblical inscription in Latin is displayed as part of the The Staffordshire Hoard, the UK's largest collection of Anglo Saxon treasure ever found, at Birmingham Museum on September 24, 2009 in Birmingham, England. The haul of over 1,500 gold and silver pieces artefacts were found in a field by metal detector enthusiast Terry Herbert. The collection is unparalleled in it's historic importance. (Photo by Christopher Furlong/Getty Images) Christopher Furlong/Getty Images Show More Show Less

137 of 156 BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND - SEPTEMBER 24: An intricately carved gold artefact is displayed as part of the The Staffordshire Hoard, the UK's largest collection of Anglo Saxon treasure ever found, at Birmingham Museum on September 24, 2009 in Birmingham, England. The haul of over 1,500 gold and silver pieces artefacts were found in a field by metal detector enthusiast Terry Herbert. The collection is unparalleled in it's historic importance. (Photo by Christopher Furlong/Getty Images) Christopher Furlong/Getty Images Show More Show Less

139 of 156 BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND - SEPTEMBER 24: A gold cross is displayed as part of the The Staffordshire Hoard, the UK's largest collection of Anglo Saxon treasure ever found, at Birmingham Museum on September 24, 2009 in Birmingham, England. The haul of over 1,500 gold and silver pieces artefacts were found in a field by metal detector enthusiast Terry Herbert. The collection is unparalleled in it's historic importance. (Photo by Christopher Furlong/Getty Images) Christopher Furlong/Getty Images Show More Show Less

140 of 156 BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND - SEPTEMBER 24: Treasures are displayed as part of the The Staffordshire Hoard, the UK's largest collection of Anglo Saxon treasure ever found, at Birmingham Museum on September 24, 2009 in Birmingham, England. The haul of over 1,500 gold and silver pieces artefacts were found in a field by metal detector enthusiast Terry Herbert. The collection is unparalleled in it's historic importance. (Photo by Christopher Furlong/Getty Images) Christopher Furlong/Getty Images Show More Show Less

142 of 156 BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND - SEPTEMBER 24: A section from the cheek plate of a helmet is displayed as part of the The Staffordshire Hoard, the UK's largest collection of Anglo Saxon treasure ever found, at Birmingham Museum on September 24, 2009 in Birmingham, England. The haul of over 1,500 gold and silver pieces artefacts were found in a field by metal detector enthusiast Terry Herbert. The collection is unparalleled in it's historic importance. (Photo by Christopher Furlong/Getty Images) Christopher Furlong/Getty Images Show More Show Less

143 of 156 BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND - SEPTEMBER 24: Doctor David Symons, curator of antiquities holds a cross as part of the The Staffordshire Hoard, the UK's largest collection of Anglo Saxon treasure ever found, at Birmingham Museum on September 24, 2009 in Birmingham, England. The haul of over 1,500 gold and silver pieces artefacts were found in a field by metal detector enthusiast Terry Herbert. The collection is unparalleled in it's historic importance. (Photo by Christopher Furlong/Getty Images) Christopher Furlong/Getty Images Show More Show Less

145 of 156 BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND - SEPTEMBER 24: Treasures are displayed as part of the The Staffordshire Hoard, the UK's largest collection of Anglo Saxon treasure ever found, at Birmingham Museum on September 24, 2009 in Birmingham, England. The haul of over 1,500 gold and silver pieces artefacts were found in a field by metal detector enthusiast Terry Herbert. The collection is unparalleled in it's historic importance. (Photo by Christopher Furlong/Getty Images) Christopher Furlong/Getty Images Show More Show Less

146 of 156 BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND - SEPTEMBER 24: Treasures are displayed as part of the The Staffordshire Hoard, the UK's largest collection of Anglo Saxon treasure ever found, at Birmingham Museum on September 24, 2009 in Birmingham, England. The haul of over 1,500 gold and silver pieces artefacts were found in a field by metal detector enthusiast Terry Herbert. The collection is unparalleled in it's historic importance. (Photo by Christopher Furlong/Getty Images) Christopher Furlong/Getty Images Show More Show Less

148 of 156 A damaged gold plaque showing two birds of prey gripping a fish between them is displayed at the Staffordshire Hoard exhibition at the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery in Birmingham, central England, on September 25, 2009. A stunning hoard of Anglo-Saxon treasure went on show Friday -- but the golden trove's lustre was tarnished by a reported row between the two men who will share the fortune it sells for. The discovery of the biggest ever such haul -- at least 1,350 items, including five kilogrammes (11 pounds) of gold, found in a field in central England by a metal detector hobbyist in July -- was announced on Thursday. AFP PHOTO/Frantzesco Kangaris (Photo credit should read FRANTZESCO KANGARIS/AFP/Getty Images) FRANTZESCO KANGARIS/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

149 of 156 Visitors view gold artifacts at the Staffordshire Hoard exhibition at the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery in Birmingham, central England, on September 25, 2009. A stunning hoard of Anglo-Saxon treasure went on show Friday -- but the golden trove's lustre was tarnished by a reported row between the two men who will share the fortune it sells for. The discovery of the biggest ever such haul -- at least 1,350 items, including five kilogrammes (11 pounds) of gold, found in a field in central England by a metal detector hobbyist in July -- was announced on Thursday. AFP PHOTO/Frantzesco Kangaris (Photo credit should read FRANTZESCO KANGARIS/AFP/Getty Images) FRANTZESCO KANGARIS/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

151 of 156 LONDON, ENGLAND - NOVEMBER 03: Sheet gold plaque with birds of prey are displayed at a photocall for the Saffordhire Hoard at the British Museum on November 3, 2009 in London, England. The Staffordshire Hoard, found in July 2009 is the biggest archaeological discovery of Anglo Saxon gold for a generation (Photo by Marco Secchi/Getty Images) Marco Secchi/Getty Images Show More Show Less

152 of 156 LONDON, ENGLAND - NOVEMBER 03: A British Museum employee admires a golden cross that was folded possibly to make it fit into a small space prior to burial is displayed during a photocall for the Saffordhire Hoard at the British Museum on November 3, 2009 in London, England. The Staffordshire Hoard, found in July 2009 is the biggest archaeological discovery of Anglo Saxon gold for a generation (Photo by Marco Secchi/Getty Images) Marco Secchi/Getty Images Show More Show Less

154 of 156 LONDON, ENGLAND - NOVEMBER 03: Culture Minister Margaret Hodge shows a hilt fitting displayed during a photocall for the Saffordhire Hoard at the British Museum on November 3, 2009 in London, England. The Staffordshire Hoard, found in July 2009 is the biggest archaeological discovery of Anglo Saxon gold for a generation (Photo by Marco Secchi/Getty Images) Marco Secchi/Getty Images Show More Show Less

155 of 156 In this photograph taken April 28, 2010, Belgian treasure-hunter Luc Heymans holds an ancient gold dagger handle with an arabic inscription, part of a treasure haul brought to the surface from an ancient shipwreck, at a showroom in south Jakarta. An ancient treasure trove salvaged from a 1,000-year-old shipwreck found by Indonesian fishermen is set to go under the hammer in Jakarta on May 5 with a minimum price of 80 million dollars. Heymans said the haul was one of the biggest found in Asia and was comparable to the most valuable shipwreck ever found anywhere, that of the Atocha, a Spanish vessel which sank off Florida in 1622. AFP PHOTO/ROMEO GACAD (Photo credit should read ROMEO GACAD/AFP/Getty Images) ROMEO GACAD/AFP/Getty Images Show More Show Less

Robert Hodsdon is a beachcomber with a metal detector. He spends time wandering near the seawall in Galveston, searching for lost treasures.

As his metal detector went off repeatedly on Jan 8., Hodsdon knew there was quite the haul beneath the sand.

&ldquoIt was beeping everywhere I put my metal detector,&rdquo Hodsdon told The Galveston County Daily News. &ldquoI said, &lsquoWell, lookie here. I found a coin spill.&rsquo&rdquo

As the 62-year-old Texas City man spent more than an hour digging in the sand, other treasure hunters began to notice. Waht Hodsdon found was a stash of foreign coins.

Another treasure hunter made a connection between the find and a Facebook post about stolen coins and other items recently.

Peter Grasso, 64, of Galveston, later identified the coins as having been taken from his apartment. He believes someone he knows took the items and said they weren't worth much.

Hodsdon usually keeps any foreign coins that he recovers, but in this case, he said he&rsquos happy to return them to Grasso.

>>>Click through the above gallery to see photos of discovered hidden treasures.


Cityscape: Sacred Heart Conventual Chapel soars above West Side

2 of 156 This is the Sacred Heart Conventual Chapel (center) at Our Lady of the Lake University. The chapel is located at 411 Southwest 24th Street. JOHN DAVENPORT/SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS Show More Show Less

4 of 156 File photo/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

5 of 156 Sister Theresa Gossen (at lectern) and Rev. Ken Hannon (right) tell the story of the Sisters of Divine Providence and the Missionary Catechists of Divine Providence at the 250th anniversary celebration of the groups. The celebration was held at Sacred Heart Conventual Chapel at Our Lady of the Lake University. Five other groups from Belgium and France were also included in the celebration. (Sunday January 15, 2012) JOHN DAVENPORT/[email protected] JOHN DAVENPORT/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

7 of 156 Sister Theresa Gossen takes part in a procession before telling some of story of the Sisters of Divine Providence and the Missionary Catechists of Divine Providence at the 250th anniversary celebration of the groups. The celebration was held at Sacred Heart Conventual Chapel at Our Lady of the Lake University. Other groups from Belgium and France were also included in the celebration. (Sunday January 15, 2012) JOHN DAVENPORT/[email protected] JOHN DAVENPORT/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

8 of 156 Sister Theresa Gossen (at lectern) tells some of the story of the Sisters of Divine Providence and the Missionary Catechists of Divine Providence and the 250th anniversary celebration of the groups. The celebration was held at Sacred Heart Conventual Chapel at Our Lady of the Lake University. (Sunday January 15, 2012) JOHN DAVENPORT/[email protected] JOHN DAVENPORT/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

10 of 156 FOR METRO - People attend a Mass of Thanksgiving, sponsored by the Congregation of Divine Providence Saturday June 21, 2008 at the Sacred Heart Conventual Chapel, for emergency personnel, the media, volunteers and community for their service during the fire at Our Lady of the Lake University May 6, 2008. (PHOTO BY EDWARD A. ORNELAS/[email protected]) EDWARD A. ORNELAS/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

11 of 156 METRO ---- A waxing gibbous moon framed by branches from a tree rises Tuesday night Oct. 23, 2007 over the Sacred Heart Conventual Chapel at Our Lady of the Lake University. The full moon will occur on Friday, Oct. 26. WILLIAM LUTHER/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

13 of 156 One of the windows in the Sacred Heart Conventual Chapel at Our lady of the Lake Convent Center. The window depicts the five sorrowful mysteries of the rosary. JOHN DAVENPORT / STAFF JOHN DAVENPORT/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

14 of 156 Jesus wearing the crown of thorns in the Sacred Heart Conventual Chapel at Our Lady of the Lake Convent Center. The chapel was built in 1923 and restored in 1996. JOHN DAVENPORT / STAFF JOHN DAVENPORT/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

17 of 156 Tower of the Americas:

739 E César E. Chávez Blvd

Arguably the most iconic image of San Antonio's skyline — and definitely the most visible — the Tower of the Americas was built for the 1968 World's Fair to serve as its signature structure.
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Terry Scott Bertling/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

19 of 156 Ursuline Academy:

The complex was designed by architect Francois Giraud, who became a mayor of San Antonio. The first academy building, which currently houses art studios and classrooms, was built in 1851 by Jules Poinsard.
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Helen L. Montoya/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

20 of 156 The Original HemisFair Buñuelos company:

The company took over the old carriage house behind the Maverick-Carter house in 1968 to prepare enough of the cinnamon-and-sugar-dusted pastries for fans at the World's Fair.
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Billy Calzada/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

22 of 156 Sheraton Gunter Hotel:

Since opening Nov. 20, 1909, the Sheraton Gunter Hotel has undergone numerous renovations. he hotel was named after rancher Jot Gunter, its chief investor, who died before the hotel was completed, according to the building's application to the National Register of Historic Places.
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BOB OWEN/SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS Show More Show Less

23 of 156 Francesco di Paola Catholic Church:

The Romanesque-style San Francesco di Paola Catholic Church was built in 1927 for the city's Italian Catholics.
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25 of 156 Sullivan Carriage House:

The building was given in 1987 to the San Antonio Botanical Garden. The building's limestone blocks were meticulously disassembled and marked by masons, and, after years of restoration, the re-erected building opened in 1995.
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JOHN DAVENPORT/SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS Show More Show Less

26 of 156 The Havana Riverwalk Inn:

Built during World War I along the river by a San Antonio grocer as a place to house buyers visiting town, the Hotel Havana now sports a bit of downtown hipster chic.
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JOHN DAVENPORT/SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS Show More Show Less

28 of 156 Navarro Academy:

This historic structure first served as an elementary school and was named after José Antonio Navarro, a native-born signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence and later state senator.
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Lisa Krantz/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

29 of 156 Hot Wells Ballroom:

With its eclectic edifice on the Southeast Side, the Hot Wells Ballroom was built as a girls' school in 1916 then became a sanitorium before a series of incarnations as offices and clinics.
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31 of 156 E.O. Goldbeck home and studio:

Highland Park, Southeast Side

Beginning in the 1930s, famous San Antonio photographer E.O. Goldbeck used the property as his home and studio, where he pioneered and perfected panoramic photography.
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Kin Man Hui/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

32 of 156 Serenity of Motherhouse Chapel:

University of the Incarnate Word

The songs of more than a century of Catholic sisters seem to linger in this airy chapel of pale marble, gold accents, and stain-glass filtered light. The columns and arches are replete with inscriptions and symbolism.
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BOB OWEN/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

34 of 156 Fire Station No. 11:

South Frio Street and West César E. Chávez Blvd.

The corner of South Frio Street and West César E. Chávez Boulevard was home to a fire station since the late 1890s, according to a 2008 research paper by the UTSA College of Architecture.
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Edward A. Ornelas/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

35 of 156 The Pearl Stable:

The stable has experienced something of a role reversal during its 119 years of operation. Back in the day, the round building housed horses used to deliver beer across the city. Now, the well-heeled come to the stable for drinks.
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William Luther/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

37 of 156 Heimann Building:

The historic Heimann Building was once home to a hotel built because of its proximity to the International and Great Northern Railroad station. It was the first hotel with a telephone system and air conditioning, according to the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
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Lisa Krantz/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

38 of 156 Joske's Department Store building:

Joske Brothers opened in 1889. The evolving architecture features limestone, Spanish Renaissance details and a reproduction of Mission San José's sacristy window.
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40 of 156 Olmos Dam rock wall:

East Olmos Drive between Crescent Street and Devine Road

San Antonio-based engineer Samuel F. Crecelius designed the Olmos Dam and oversaw its construction. The building of the $1.5 million structure began after a 1921 flood devastated downtown and drowned about 50 residents.
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BOB OWEN/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

41 of 156 Pavilion of Gwang-Ju:

Denman Estate Park, 7735 Mockingbird Lane

Perched at the far end of the pond at Denman Estate Park is the Pavilion of Gwang-Ju, a “sister city” gift that brings an Eastern touch to a tranquil enclave in Northwest San Antonio.
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Billy Calzada/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

43 of 156 Toltec Apartment building:

The Toltec Apartment building has come full circle since it debuted in 1913 as one of the city's first apartment buildings.
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JOHN DAVENPORT/SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS Show More Show Less

44 of 156 St. Paul Lutheran Church:

Built in 1925, the red brick structure was enlarged in 1948. Stained glass windows, designed by the pastor at that time, also were added. In 1929, a two-story building was constructed to house the church's school, which taught students through eighth grade. The school closed in 1975, but the church still offers daycare and preschool.
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JERRY LARA/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

46 of 156 San Antonio Museum of Art

The museum opened in 1981, but its building was built in 1884 for the Lone Star Brewery.
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ANSEN SEALE/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

47 of 156 Eagar House:

Named for Sarah Riddle Eagar, housed the Southern Baptist Exhibit during HemisFair '68 and remains on the park grounds.
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Billy Calzada/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

49 of 156 John H. Wood Federal Courthouse:

Built to serve as the U.S. Pavilion for HemisFair '68, he drum-like structure draws from Greek and Roman architecture yet evokes space-age appeal. The travertine-paneled building is named for a slain federal judge.
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Lisa Krantz / San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

50 of 156 Sacred Heart Conventual Chapel:

With stained glass windows imported from Germany and intricate paintings on the walls, the chapel on the campus of Our Lady of the Lake University, is a formidable sight to behold, its spire reaching 193 feet. The chapel is used by the Sisters of Divine Providence as well as the university.
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File photo/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

52 of 156 Woodward mansion

In 1904, businessman David Woodward was at his wits end trying to find the perfect birthday gift for his wife, Mae. So he decided to build one —and today it is home to the San Antonio Woman's Club.
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Helen L. Montoya/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

53 of 156 Central Library

Its bright red color was shocking at first, but now the library is just an intriguing part of the downtown skyline.
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Billy Calzada/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

55 of 156 Municipal Plaza Building

It was the home of Frost Bank back in 1922. Now the building is owned by the city and is where City Council meetings are held.
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Bob Owen/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

56 of 156 Emily Morgan Hotel

Terra cotta gargoyles on the sides of the Medical Arts Building welcome a different kind of guest today than when it opened as a hospital in 1924.
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William Luther/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

58 of 156 House of CARDS

Though it sits in the midst of a University of the Incarnate Word campus parking lot, students built the house as a functioning residence.
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Helen L. Montoya/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

59 of 156 Basilica of the National Shrine of the Little Flower

The Discalced Carmelites, a Catholic religious order, had the church built in 1931.
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WILLIAM LUTHER/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

61 of 156 Bushnell apartment building

Built in 1926 and designed by architect Robert Kelly, it houses 29 one- and two-bedroom apartments.
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Tom Reel / San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

62 of 156 Hipolito F. Garcia Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse

It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. In 2004, the building was rededicated and named after the San Antonio-born federal judge who died in 2002.
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Jerry Lara/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

64 of 156 Arneson River Theater

Designed by architect Robert H.H. Hugman, the open-air theater lines a corner of the River Walk by La Villita, with staging on the north bank and seating on the south.
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John Davenport/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

65 of 156 Our Lady of the Lake University Main Building

On May 6, 2008, a fire heavily damaged OLLU's historic Main Building. It was rebuilt and reopened in 2010.
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67 of 156 Temple Beth-El

The temple has undergone several renovations and additions over the years, including the Memorial Patio being replaced by the Oppenheimer Chapel in 1960.
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Kin Man Hui/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

68 of 156 Koehler Cultural Center

When Pearl Beer chief Otto Koehler chose the hill on which to build his house, he had a clear view of City Brewery, which later became Pearl Brewery.
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Tom Reel / San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

70 of 156 The Veranda

The site became well known as home to chef Jason Dady's restaurant, The Lodge of Castle Hills, for nearly a decade until it closed in December 2011.
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71 of 156 La Tuna Ice House

The idea to open an ice house came while the owner was drinking a beer at the old Acapulco Drive-In. He decided opening bottles was something he could get good at.
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Helen L. Montoya/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

73 of 156 Reuter Building

German immigrant William “Billy” Reuter constructed the four-story brick building on Alamo Plaza in the early 1890s. Reuter's saloon occupied the first floor.
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Helen L. Montoya / San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

74 of 156 Prospect Hill Missionary Baptist Church

The building is “the only remaining example of a church in Beaux Arts style in San Antonio,” according to the Texas Historical Commission website.
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Billy Calzada/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

76 of 156 Casa Navarro State Historic site

Historic documents and artifacts from the family's life and work are kept at the landmark home, one of the few remaining adobe structures in San Antonio, according to the Texas Historical Commission.
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Robin Jerstad/For the Express-News Show More Show Less

77 of 156 Deco Pizzeria

At Deco Pizzeria, customers drink sangria and eat thin-crust pepperoni pizza in the same spot where, decades ago, motorists fed their cars at a gas pump.
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John Davenport/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

79 of 156 Crenwelge/Braun home

A city landmark, the home was heated by a wood-burning stove and had no air conditioning through its last occupation by Burton Braun, who died in 2006 at age 85.
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Zeke McCormack/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

80 of 156 Casino Club Building

Built in 1927 for a private club, it was purchased by Oklahoma oilman Thomas Gilcrease in 1942 and used for his corporate office.
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JOHN DAVENPORT/SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS Show More Show Less

82 of 156 Texas Star Inn

The music venue, built in 1946, was originally a beer joint and biker hangout.
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JOHN DAVENPORT/SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS Show More Show Less

83 of 156 AT&T Center

Originally called the SBC Center, the building is sunken into the ground to appear less overpowering in the neighborhood.
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85 of 156 Nelson W. Wolff Municipal Stadium

The ballpark is home to the San Antonio Missions, is the grand dame of Texas League ballparks.
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86 of 156 Travis Park

Bounded by Travis, Navarro, Pecan and Jefferson streets

The park was willed to San Antonio by Augustus Maverick, who signed the Texas Declaration of Independence, and his wife, Mary Adams Maverick.
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Jerry Lara/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

88 of 156 Kingdom Life Christian Ministries

With a space-age design now considered a Jetsons-style throwback, the building was designed as headquarters for Dixie Form and Steel Co. in 1963.
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Billy Calzada/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

89 of 156 Cypress Campus Center

The Northwest Vista College building won a 2010 Merit Award from the local American Institute of Architects chapter for its grace and interplay with the natural landscape.
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Lisa Krantz / San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

91 of 156 former Liberty Bar

The building, which goes back to 1890, was opened by Fritz Boehler, a former brewmaster at the Pearl Brewery.
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Edward A. Ornelas/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

92 of 156 Kress Building on Houston Street

The building was one of two homes in downtown San Antonio for the chain of dime stores and was designed by Brooklyn-born architect Edward Sibbert, who designed most of the stores for the nationwide chain.
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Billy Calzada/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

94 of 156 Fairmount Hotel

On March 30, 1985, the hotel was moved about five blocks from Commerce and Bowie streets, to South Alamo and Nueva streets.
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Kin Man Hui/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

95 of 156 San Fernando Cathedral

Settlers from the Canary Islands are believed to have first set the cornerstone for the structure, originally named Church of Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria y Guadalupe, in 1738.
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Helen L. Montoya/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

97 of 156 Maverick-Carter House

The home has survived decades of change and development around it, including the threat of being razed by the city in the 1960s.
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Billy Calzada/San Antonio Express News Show More Show Less

98 of 156 Locke Hill School

The historical plaque for the Locke Hill School at 5050 De Zavala notes that a school by that name has been in continuous operation since 1868 and is thus one of the oldest public schools in Texas.
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Lisa Krantz/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

100 of 156 Aurora Apartments

It was completed after the stock market crash that marked the beginning of the Great Depression and was initially part of a larger project — the rest of which was never built.
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William Luther/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

101 of 156 Tower Life Building

310 South St. Mary's Street

The lobby still has the original cast bronze and marble from when it opened in 1928 as the Smith-Young Tower.
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103 of 156 Lucile Halsell Conservatory

Its pyramid soars to 65 feet at its highest point, yet the entrance from the courtyard is cut 20 feet into the earth on the site of a 19th-century quarry and water-supply system.
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Michael Miller/For the Express-News Show More Show Less

104 of 156 Sanctuary at the First Unitarian Universalist Church

A large skylight above the dais inside the Sanctuary emits refracted daylight through glass prisms donated by the congregation and creates a natural stained glass.
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Juanito M Garza/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

106 of 156 Brady Building

The low-rise building on the corner of East Houston and North St. Mary's streets was first opened in 1913 along with the neighboring Empire Theatre by developer Thomas F. Brady.
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Helen L. Montoya/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

107 of 156 San Pedro Park Branch Library

It's in the city's oldest park, among the cedar and live oak trees, on land originally reserved for public use by the Spanish government in the 18th century.
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NICOLE FRUGE/EXPRESS-NEWS FILE PHOTO Show More Show Less

109 of 156 St. Louis Hall

When constructed in the late 1800s, the stately West Side structure started life as a boys' boarding school called St. Louis College, according to St. Mary's University staff.
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Billy Calzada/San Antonio Express News Show More Show Less

110 of 156 Olmos Bharmacy

For more than seven decades, this building has served as a neighborhood gathering spot on the border of Monte Vista and Olmos Park.
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Bob Owen/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

112 of 156 Lambermont

Sometimes called the Terrell Castle, Lambermont was designed by architect Alfred Giles to resemble the castles and chateaus of Belgium and France.
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Jerry Lara/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

113 of 156 Our Lady of Guadalupe Catholic Church

The church was founded to serve the area's Spanish-speaking population, many of whom fled the 1910 revolution in Mexico.
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Billy Calzada/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

115 of 156 Stinson Municipal Airport

In 1928, the airport began attracting commercial flights and was the local home of Texas Air Transport (which became American Airlines), Braniff Airlines and Eastern Airlines.
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Billy Calzada/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

116 of 156 Majestic Theatre

Its opening began with a ceremony, including the U.S. and Mexican national anthems, a series of vaudeville acts, and finally the film “Follies of 1929.”
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Kin Man Hui/SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS Show More Show Less

118 of 156 South Texas Blood and Tissue Center

The building was first opened in 1995 and has since had two expansions.
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Helen L. Montoya/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

119 of 156 Guadalupe Theater

Two things have never changed about the Guadalupe Theater: its colorful, tiled facade and the building's role as the cultural anchor of its namesake street.
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121 of 156 San Antonio Express-News building

Built in 1929 by Herbert S. Green, the building mirrors the epic tower style of the Chicago Tribune's home.
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William Luther/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

122 of 156 Stuemke Barn

Originally built at the corner of North Flores and Travis Street, was dismantled stone by stone and reconstructed behind the stately headquarters of the San Antonio Conservation Society in 1982.
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John MacCormack/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

124 of 156 Magnolia/Mobil service station

At the corner Broadway and Austin Highway, it has been occupied by various retailers since ceasing operations as a filling station.
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John Davenport/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

125 of 156 St. Mary's Church

The parish was formed in 1852, just 16 years after the fall of the Alamo, to serve German, Irish and other immigrants as San Fernando Cathedral became crowded.
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Helen L. Montoya/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

127 of 156 Victoria's Black Swan Inn

The antebellum-style mansion stands on the site of the 1842 Battle of Salado Creek between Texan volunteers and Mexican army troops.
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Lisa Krantz/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

128 of 156 American Funds building

In Westover Hills, it was designed to allow a view of nature from every office in the building.
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Helen L. Montoya/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

130 of 156 Commerce Building

History buffs know the building as the first Alamo National Bank. The bank received its charter in 1891 but didn’t have a building to call its own until this one in 1902.
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131 of 156 Protestant Home for Destitute Children

Kentucky Avenue and North Calaveras Street

Since 1926, the building has been condemned and resold numerous times. It's now a private residence.
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Lisa Krantz/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

133 of 156 Aue Stagecoach Inn

24059 Old Fredericksburg Road

The inn was built during a frontier era when people relied on cramped, horse-drawn stagecoaches for mail and transportation.
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Billy Calzada/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

134 of 156 Humble Oil station

In 2009, even as it sat vacant, weeds sprouting on all sides in the shadow of Interstate 35, it won the National Trust for Historic Preservation's first “This Place Matters” contest.
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136 of 156 Bexar County Courthouse

With a $1,000 prize offered for the best design, 27 architects from across the United States competed at the turn of the century to design the courthouse.
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Tom Reel/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

137 of 156 Clifford building

It was known as the Riverside Building when it opened along the San Antonio River in 1891.
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139 of 156 International & Great Northern Railroad passenger station

A train depot just west of downtown was a leading transportation center in the South in the first half of the last century.
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140 of 156 Thomas Jefferson High School

Jefferson, only the third high school built in San Antonio, was an ambitious undertaking in 1932, at a cost of more than $1.25 million.
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Kin Man Hui/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

142 of 156 Scottish Rite Cathedral

It was completed in 1924 at a cost of $1.5 million. Today the temple operates as a headquarters for Scottish Rite Masonry in San Antonio and the surrounding region.
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143 of 156 Pump House No. 1

Believed to be the second oldest industrial building standing in San Antonio it was built in 1877 in Brackenridge Park on the bank of the San Antonio River.
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JENNIFER WHITNEY/Jennifer Whitney/ special to the Express-News Show More Show Less

145 of 156 Fire Station No. 1

The former fire house was built in 1938, and its second floor was added in 1973-74.
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KEVIN MARTIN/SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS Show More Show Less

146 of 156 Nix Professional Building

The building opened along the San Antonio River in 1930 at the corner of College and Navarro streets, before there was a "River Walk".
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Lisa Krantz/SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS Show More Show Less

148 of 156 Pyramid Building

The 9-story building was built in 1980 and originally had planters that let greenery drip over the sides of the building.
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William Luther/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

149 of 156 Inter-Continental Motors building

Because it replaced a much-loved Spanish/Moorish-style home, this airy, glass-walled auto showroom was initially quite controversial.
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151 of 156 Mexican American Unity Council Center

Before this early 1900s structure was renovated in the 1970s, San Antonians growing up on the West Side, including actress-comedian Carol Burnett, attended school here.
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KEVIN MARTIN/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

152 of 156 Wesley Peacock House

Built more than 120 years ago, the House near Woodlawn Lake was the headquarters of a military academy where Dwight D. Eisenhower coached football as a young man.
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154 of 156 Yturri-Edmunds House

One of the last remaining adobe-block houses in San Antonio. The land, originally part of Mission Concepción, was granted by the Mexican government in 1824 to Manuel Yturri Castillo.
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Tom Reel/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

155 of 156 Milam Building

It has been a downtown fixture since it opened in 1928 — making history for its size and technological innovations.
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JERRY LARA/San Antonio Express-News Show More Show Less

With stained glass windows imported from Germany and intricate paintings on the walls, the Sacred Heart Conventual Chapel, on the campus of Our Lady of the Lake University, is a formidable sight to behold, its spire reaching 193 feet.

The chapel is used by the Sisters of Divine Providence as well as the university.


Another official trailer

The Monthly Adventures, previously called the Main Range or Monthly Range, was a Doctor Who audio series produced by Big Finish Productions.

The series began in 1999 with The Sirens of Time, a multi-Doctor story featuring the Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Doctors. It also featured the Eighth Doctor from Storm Warning in 2001 until 2012, when he moved to his own series of audios, the Eighth Doctor Adventures.

Stories in this range were typically narratively independent from each other, though sometimes Big Finish made stories part of trilogies, larger story arcs, or tie-ins to their other ranges, such as Dalek Empire and Cyberman. One such example was 1963, a trilogy of stories set in the year 1963 and released in 2013 to celebrate Doctor Who's 50th anniversary.

Iron Bright, the first Monthly Adventures story to use the 2018 version of the Doctor Who logo on its cover.

From The Sirens of Time to The Lure of the Nomad, all releases used the 1996 variation of the Doctor Who logo. Starting with Iron Bright, the series' 239th release, the version of the logo introduced in 2018 started being used. This marked the first instance of Big Finish using the "current" Doctor Who logo since the show's revival in 2005.

The Monthly Adventures included stories with all of the Doctors' television companions, including Adric, Nyssa, Tegan, Turlough, Kamelion, Peri Brown, Melanie Bush, and Ace, as well as their companions from non-televised media, such as Frobisher, Maxwell Edison, and Izzy Sinclair from Doctor Who Magazine comic stories, Bernice Summerfield from Virgin Books' New Adventures novels, and Fitz Kreiner of BBC Books' Eighth Doctor Adventures. Many other characters from the television series, including several companions of non-featured Doctors, also appeared in various stories.

Big Finish also created a number of original companions for The Monthly Adventures. These included Thomas Brewster, Marcipor, Erimem, Evelyn Smythe, Flip Jackson, Constance Clarke, Bev Tarrant, Hex, Elizabeth Klein, Liv Chenka, Sally Morgan, Lysandra Aristedes, Will Arrowsmith, C'rizz, and Mary Shelley. Some of these characters received their own audio spinoffs: Charlotte Pollard, which featured Charlotte Pollard, who was introduced as an Eighth Doctor companion in Storm Warning and later joined the Sixth Doctor at the end of The Girl Who Never Was Graceless, which featured Abby and Zara from the arc The Key 2 Time and Vienna, which featured Vienna Salvatori from The Shadow Heart, although it is not considered a valid source on this wiki.

The series ended in 2021 with the 275th release: The End of the Beginning.


Contents

The first coins of the pound sterling with the value of 12d were minted in 1503 [4] or 1504 [3] and were known as testoons. The testoon was one of the first English coins to bear a real (rather than a representative) portrait of the monarch on its obverse, and it is for this reason that it obtained its name from an Italian coin known as the testone, or headpiece, which had been introduced in Milan in 1474. [5] Between 1544 and 1551 the coinage was debased repeatedly by the governments of Henry VIII and Edward VI in an attempt to generate more money to fund foreign wars. This debasement meant that coins produced in 1551 had one-fifth of the silver content of those minted in 1544, and consequently the value of new testoons fell from 12d to 6d. [6] The reason the testoon decreased in value is that unlike today, the value of coins was determined by the market price of the metal contained within them. This debasement was recognised as a mistake, and during Elizabeth's reign newly minted coins, including the testoon (now known as the shilling), had a much higher silver content and regained their pre-debasement value. [7]

Shillings were minted during the reign of every single English monarch following Edward VI, as well as during the Commonwealth, with a vast number of variations and alterations appearing over the years. The Royal Mint undertook a massive recoinage programme in 1816, with large quantities of gold and silver coin being minted. Previous issues of silver coinage had been irregular, and the last issue, minted in 1787, was not intended for issue to the public, but as Christmas gifts to the Bank of England's customers. [8] New silver coinage was to be of .925 (sterling) standard, with silver coins to be minted at 66 shillings to the troy pound. [9] Hence, newly minted shillings weighed 2 ⁄ 11 troy ounce, equivalent to 87.273 grains or 5.655 grams.

The Royal Mint debased the silver coinage in 1920 from 92.5% silver to 50% silver. Shillings of both alloys were minted that year. [10] [ self-published source? ] This debasement was done because of the rising price of silver around the world, and followed the global trend of the elimination, or the reducing in purity, of the silver in coinage. [11] The minting of silver coinage of the pound sterling ceased completely (except for the ceremonial Maundy Money) at the end of 1946 for similar reasons, exacerbated by the costs of the Second World War. New "silver" coinage was instead minted in cupronickel, an alloy of 75% copper and 25% nickel, containing no silver at all. [12]

Beginning with Lord Wrottesley's proposals in the 1820s there were various attempts to decimalise the pound sterling over the next century and a half. [13] [14] These attempts came to nothing significant until the 1960s when the need for a currency more suited to simple monetary calculations became pressing. The decision to decimalise was announced in 1966, with the pound to be redivided into 100, rather than 240, pence. [15] Decimal Day was set for 15 February 1971, and a whole range of new coins was introduced. Shillings continued to be legal tender with a value of 5 new pence until 31 December 1990. [2]

Testoons issued during the reign of Henry VII feature a right-facing portrait of the king on the obverse. Surrounding the portrait is the inscription HENRICUS DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRA , or similar, meaning "Henry, by the Grace of God, King of England and France". [5] All shillings minted under subsequent kings and queens bear a similar inscription on the obverse identifying the monarch (or Lord Protector during the Commonwealth), with the portrait usually flipping left-facing to right-facing or vice versa between monarchs. The reverse features the escutcheon of the Royal Arms of England, surrounded by the inscription POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM , or a variant, meaning "I have made God my helper". [16]

Henry VIII testoons have a different reverse design, featuring a crowned Tudor rose, but those of Edward VI return to the Royal Arms design used previously. [17] Starting with Edward VI the coins feature the denomination XII printed next to the portrait of the king. Elizabeth I and Mary I shillings are exceptions to this the former has the denomination printed on the reverse, above the coat of arms, and the latter has no denomination printed at all. Some shillings issued during Mary's reign bear the date of minting, printed above the dual portraits of Mary and Philip. [17]

Early shillings of James I feature the alternative reverse inscription EXURGAT DEUS DISSIPENTUR INIMICI , meaning "Let God arise and His enemies be scattered", becoming QVAE DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET , meaning "What God hath put together let no man put asunder" after 1604. [18] [19]

A slang name for a shilling was a "bob" (plural as singular, as in "that cost me two bob"). The first recorded use was in a case of coining heard at the Old Bailey in 1789, when it was described as cant, "well understood among a certain set of people", but heard only among criminals and their associates. [20]

In much of West Africa, white people are called toubabs, which may derive from the colonial practice of paying locals two shillings for running errands. [21] An alternate etymology holds that the name is derived from French toubib, i.e. doctor. [22]

To "take the King's shilling" was to enlist in the army or navy, a phrase dating back to the early 19th century. [23]

To "cut someone off with a shilling", often quoted as "cut off without a shilling" means to disinherit. Although having no basis in English law, some believe that leaving a family member a single shilling in one's will ensured that it could not be challenged in court as an oversight. [24]

A popular legend holds that a shilling was the value of a cow in Kent, or a sheep elsewhere. [25]


Neptune Investment Management Novices Hurdle 2m abt 5f

A race due an upset. Winner due to be priced bigger than 7/1. To be aged 5 or 6. Will have won over 2m 4f at least if has been tried over that trip. Won last time and will have won at least 50% of all hurdle starts. 1st or 2nd last time out. Will have not been outside first 4 of any completed starts over hurdles. Either has run 4 times this season or has not finished outside the first two this season. Not Henderson, Nicholls nor Pipe trained. Has been placed in a graded race. Messire Des Obeaux gets placed. Won't be wearing blinkers. NH bred. Look out for fancied runners who were in the first 6 home in 2013 Champion Bumper. Respect W Mullins (a lot). Not the Deloitte winner. Not beaten favourite last time. Either ran in this calendar year or won a Graded race in late December. Pre race rating 142+

Last 10 Neptune winners (and pre-race rating)

2015 - Windsor Park (IRE) 146

2011 - First Lieutenant (IRE) 142

2009 - Mikael d'Haguenet (IRE) 155

2008 - Five For Three (IRE) 131

2007 - Massini's Maguire 138

2015 Maximum number of runners dropped from 24 to 22. Corals, Hills and Ppower only went 1/5 odds three places. Nonsense.

AGE French Holly ྞ only second horse aged 7 or over to win this race in its 44 year history (Brown Lad ྆). One unplaced in 2016 Parlour Games was 2nd 2015. Ballyalton 2nd 2014 at 20s Since Crystal Spirit ’91, 20 four year olds have tried. None placed. (Both French Holly and Crystal Spirit were strongly supported favourites).

TRAINERS Since Regal Ambition ’90, M/D. Pipe have saddled 37 losers, of which only 3 were placed. 2014 Red Sherlock 7/2 2nd fav and 9th. No runners last two years N. Henderson. One winner and one placed from 29 runners. Lots of short prices. 2012 Simonsig 2/1 fav, definitely stopped the rot. Nothing placed since. 2016 OO Seven 8th in 2016 2015 Vyta Du Roc 4th @15/2, Be advised that he used to have a similarly appalling record in the Coral Cup before Spirit River 2010 and Whisper 2014.

Never won by P Nicholls. No representatives in the last five, Rock On Ruby unlucky in 2011, Breedsbreeze, Silverburn and Denman under 10/1 and beaten in last 11 years.

W Mullins has won four from last nine and also 5 placed in the last 11. Lets Dance, Augusta Kate, SaturnasDid run 4 of the 11 strong field in 2016. Nichols Canyon 3rd as 7/2 fav in 2015. Wrong type of ride admitted by both trainer and jockey. 2014 Faugheen won and Rathvinden 3rd, 2013 Pont Alexandre all the rage at 6/4, only 3rd (possibly also a strange ride in race ran 22 seconds above standard?). 2012 Felix Yonger 2nd at 16s, the outsider of his three runners, 2011 So Young 3rd. All Willie's winners won last time out and were his most fancied.

OTHER IRISH TRAINERS - E. O'Grady has won this twice, 3 of his last four runners being placed, Over the Bar, Pizarro and Catch Me However no runners last seven years. Windsor Park trained by DK Weld and started in bumpers. Three Irish Trained in 2011 finished 1st, 3rd and 4th. (and Oscars Well was unlucky at the last). Monksland 3rd 2012, Rule The World 2nd in front of Pont in 2013. Simonsig won two points in Northern Ireland. Against that, only 10 from last 15 winners started off in Irish points.

Irish trained 19 winners of the last 44 and 7 of last 11.

FORM Urubande and Gallileo only winners in past 21 not to have competed in a Graded race before Cheltenham. Gallileo had Graded form on the flat. Yorkhill won a very good Tolworth (Finians Oscar), Faugheen won G3 at Limerick. Windsor Park 2nd in the Deloitte.

17 from the last 19 placed at least in Graded company. ང Fiveforthree was 5th in previous Champion Bumper.

Faugheen, Simonsig followed Mikael D'Haguenet ཅ for favourite backers. The latter was the first since Monsignor 2000 (I remember being the only person in Prestbury Park not to have backed Monsignor that day. Only won by the 8 lengths). 2011 So Young 2/1 fav and 3rd. ཆ Rite of Passage 7/2 fav and 3rd. Against all this གྷ Massini’s Maguire at 20/1 first winner over 16/1 since ’84. Nothing over 7/1 since 2007. Due an upset.

29 from last 31 came from the first six in the market. Massini's Maguire and Gaelstorm 16s in ྙ. Big prices do get placed (Itsafreebee/Ballyalton/Lanzerac/Gentle Rivage/Grey Report) but not particularly over last 5 years. 11 ran in last year and only 10 in 2015 and 8 in 2013.

Best trials can be Deloitte at Leopardstown mid Feb (Windsor Park, Danoli, Istabraq, Hardy Eustace, Oscars Well). Bacardys bt Bunk Off EarlyHowever apart form Windsor Park (beaten in the Deloitte) the last six Irish trained winners before came from some other route. The Leamington Novice Neptune Trial in Warwick early January won by Willoughby Courtwas won in 2013 by The New One and previously by No Refuge. Also the Warwick Novice in mid-Feb (Rebel Song, Sayfar’s Lad, Thetford Forest, Putty Road and Monsignor). Aintree My Dream

Deloitte winner hasn't doubled up since Istabraq ྜྷ and C Swan might have been a trifle fortunate that day. The machine got home by a length from Mighty Moss who was amateur owner 'steered'. Oscars Well may have been unfortunate not to double up when he clouted the last at Cheltenham in 2011. 7 others, all short enough priced, also failed, 2016 Bleu et Rouge fell in the Albert Bartlett. 2015 Nichols Canyon 3rd here. Bacardys

THE CHALLOW WINNER - (Why do they bother? Do they not know?). All 15 Challow Hurdle winners to try here have come up short (Messire Des Obeaux) 7 have been placed in it including Parlour Games in 2015, Diamond Harry, Reve de Sivola, Denman. Al Ferof was 3rd at Newbury then won the Supreme Novices, For Non Stop 4th (fell at last when 2nd in 2011 Coral Cup). Both Gaelstrom and Massini's Maguire both well beaten in Challow before winning at the Festival. 4 of the last 5 Challow winners to run in this have been placed and there was excuses for the other, Taquin Du Seuil. Messire des Obeaux posted the best time for a Challow in the last ten years by a good 15 seconds. Goodish ground at Newbury as opposed to the usual late December bog which can take it toll on young novices?

Fiveforthree and Peddlers Cross only winners since Istabrag ‘97 not to have won over 2 & 1/2 miles or further previous to this race (they hadn't run over that trip before).

17 of the last 25 had all run at least 4 times previous that season (if you include Windsor Park's autumn flat wins). The other 8 did not finish outside the first two that season.

Massini’s Maguire followed Gaelstrom ’93 as the only ones of the last 29 winners to have finished outside the first 4 on any completed start that season (a fifth place each). Both were course novice hurdle winners that season and also second season novices.

31 from last 32 1st or 2nd last time out (not Massini's - finished 3 rd to Wichita Lineman in 2m 5f novice on Cheltenham Trials Day). 20 from last 21 won last time.

Mares. 14 runners in last 23. One winner, a second and a third. (One no hoper in the past 10 and can't see that improving much with the mares race over the same trip).

Windsor Park, First Lieutenant and Massini's Maguire only ones since Putty Road ’85 not to have finished in the first two in all completed starts over hurdles. The first two were 2nd and 1st respectively in a G1 last time.

Faugheen joins First Lieutenant only ones in last 14 to not have a run in the same calendar year. First's last run was to win G1 Leopardstown 29th December. Faugheen's was to win a G3 in Limerick 28th December. Of the last 13 Fundamentalist quickest turn round last run was 28th February, only 14 days before. Yorkhill 74 days.

17 from last 19 have won at least 50% of all completed starts over hurdles. Not Windsor Park, only one from three.

Top-six finishers in the previous season's Festival Bumper: 15 have taken their chance in the last 18 races. Yanworth and Vigil in 2016. Four won (French Holly, Monsignor, Fiveforthree and The New One) and four were placed (Yanworth, Pizarro, Refinement and Rite Of Passage). None of those eight started bigger than 7/1. Possibilities 2017 - Ballyandy, Battleford, Bacardys, Castello Sforza, Westend Story and High Bridge. Augusta Kate finished 7th.

HANDICAP MARK In 109 of the last 12, the horse with the current highest handicap mark, i.e. has been assessed by the handicapper, has been placed at least (3 winners). Yanworth was 158 to Yorkhill's 156, the top two. 2015 Windsor Park only 4th top rated of 146, Nicholls top on 149. 2014 Faugheen top with 152, Rathvinden 151. 2014 Pont Alexandre top on 154, The New One 152. 2012 Simonsig top with 148, followed by Sous Les Sieux 145 (5th), Monksland 144 (3rd). ཆ Peddlers top on 148 beats next best Rive de Sivola, ཅ Mikael joint top rated with Diamond Harry on 155, 1st and 3rd. In 2015 the top four rated filled the top four places but not in ratings order. A stat you might expect.

BLINKERS, CHEEKPIECES etc - 15 runners in last 17. None ran last year. Parlour Games 2nd in a hood he always wore. All others unplaced.

BREEDING - 16 from last 18 were NH Bred including 9 from last 10. Not Simonsig by Fair Mix G1 Flat. Yorkhill by Presenting. Windsor Park by Galileo, Faugheen by Germany, the latter two both dual purpose sires.

BEATEN FAVOURITE LAST TIME - 27 have tried this century, The New One at 7/2 the sole winner. Turned over at 4/5 on Cheltenham Trials Day by At Fishers Cross.


Clinical characteristics and prognostic analysis of triple‑negative breast cancer patients

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females (1) and the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality behind lung cancer (2). Due to changes in lifestyle, the incidence of breast cancer, which is currently on the increase in developing countries, including China, has increased significantly. Based on DNA microarray techniques, breast cancer is classified into five subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, normal breast-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu)-overexpressing and basal-like (3). The basal-like and normal breast-like subtypes, which are immunohistochemically characterized by the lack of expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and HER2, are defined as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (4).

TNBC is a distinct breast cancer subtype, which accounts for

10–17% of all breast carcinomas (5). TNBC, usually occurring in young females, is generally considered to exhibit an aggressive clinical behavior and poor prognosis, due to the fact that it is insensitive to endocrine and targeted therapy (6). Furthermore, the TNBC subgroup is associated with a higher risk of distant recurrence and mortality compared to its non-triple-negative counterparts, particularly during the first 3–5 years of follow-up (6). However, few studies have been conducted among non-Western populations (7) and the information on the Asian TNBC subtype remains confusing and limited (8). Kurebayashi et al (9) reported that Japanese patients with TNBC are mostly superimposable for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Lin et al (10) indicated that Taiwanese TNBC patients exhibited a better 5-year OS compared with HER2-positive patients. Yin et al (7) revealed that recurrence-free survival in Chinese TNBC patients was superior to that of HER2-positive patients. In order to elucidate whether there are regional differences among patients in different Chinese cities and whether they differ from Western populations, it is critical to further delve into the clinical characteristics and prognosis of TNBC in mainland Chinese patients.

In the present study, a retrospective analysis was perfomed on the clinicopathological characteristics of TNBC patients who received conventional treatment at the Department of Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Xi'an Jiaotong University and the Department of Breast Surgery, General Surgery, First Hospital of China Medical University. In this study, the aim was to determine the clinicopathological characteristics of this breast cancer subtype, evaluate the survival of patients treated by the currently available conventional methods and analyze the prognostic factors. The internal information on clinical TNBC cases may elucidate the implications of the underlying distinction in tumor biology from other breast cancer subgroups.

Materials and methods

Patient characteristics

Between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2007, a total of 972 female patients with breast cancer confirmed by surgery and pathological examination in the Department of Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Xi'an Jiaotong University and the Department of Breast Surgery, General Surgery, First Hospital of China Medical University, were retrospectively investigated. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the two participating hospitals. The baseline data included age, tumor characteristics (including, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, tumor grade, pathological stage, ER/PgR/HER2 expression and histological type) and treatment modalities. The quality of the cancer registry database was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Xi'an Jiaotong University.

Tumor characteristics

The pathological diagnosis was in accordance with the histological classification of tumors developed by the World Health Organization and clinical staging was based on the TNM staging of breast cancer developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer. The immunohistochemical expression of ER, PgR and HER2 was detected with the streptavidin peroxidase conjugated method (SP method) using 5-μm serial sections. The primary antibosdies used were as follows: rabbit monoclonal anti-human ER antibody, rabbit monoclonal anti-human PgR antibody (Fuzhou Maixin Biotechnology Development Co., Ltd., Fuzhou, China) and rabbit anti-human HER2 antibody (Roche Diagnostics, Shanghai, China). The secondary antibody used was HRP-ploymer anti mouse/rabbit IgG (Fuzhou Maixin Biotechnology Development Co., Ltd.). Cells accounting for ≥10% were considered as positive expression. The size of the primary breast tumor was determined by using dual-track measurement.

Treatment

Routine preoperative chemotherapy was administered to 116 out of the 972 cases (11.9%). All patients underwent surgical treatment of breast cancer. The postoperative adjuvant therapy was administered based on the recommendations of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. In our study, the majority of the patients received the CMF chemotherapy regimen: cyclophosphamide, 600 mg/m 2 methotrexate, 40 mg/m 2 and 5-FU, 500 mg/m 2 . In certain high-risk patients, taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel) were added to 5-FU, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC regimen).

Follow-up

The patients were followed-up from the first day following surgery to tumor recrudescence, metastasis or death from any cause. Our final follow-up deadline was December 31, 2011. The required information on therapeutic effect and prognosis was collected mainly through letters, telephonical communication or outpatient review. Local recurrence was defined as clinical or histological recurrence in the ipsilateral breast, chest wall or axillary lymph nodes. Distant metastasis referred to the clinical and imaging identification of distant metastatic lesions. DFS was defined as the time period from the first day after surgery to the first local recurrence or distant metastasis. OS was measured from the first day of follow-up.

Statistical analysis

The statistical software SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicafo, IL, USA) was used to analyze the collected data. Data were expressed as means ± SD for continuous variables. An independent t-test was used for the comparison of continuous variables. Categorical variables were assessed using the Chi-square test when appropriate. P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. A cumulative survival analysis of breast cancer patients was performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test was used for single-factor analysis. The multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model.

Results

Clinical characteristics

All included patients were followed up for 6–84 months, without any losses. The patients in the TNBC group accounted for 16.05% (156/972). The average age of the 156 TNBC patients was 51.7 years, with a median age of 52.5 years. The patients with TNBC had a similar age at diagnosis with non-TNBC patients (P=0.943). The TNBC patients prior to menopause accounted for 43.59% (68/156), which was not different from the non-TNBC group.

In the TNBC group, the major pathological type was infiltrative ductal carcinoma (82.05%), followed by infiltrative lobular (5.77%) and medullary carcinoma (5.13%), which was a distribution similar to that of the non-TNBC group (P=0.995). The tumor diameter in TNBC patients was commonly 2–5 cm, accounting for 60.26% (94/156), with an average tumor diameter of 3.1 cm. The percentage of tumor grade III was 51.92% in TNBC, which was significantly higher compared with that of the non-TNBC group (P=0.002). The cases with tumor stage ≥II accounted for 85.90% (134/156). The percentage of axillary lymph node-positive cases was lower in the TNBC compared to that in the non-TNBC group (P=0.009). The number of positive lymph nodes was most commonly 1–3, accounting for 45.45% (25/156), with 4–9 accounting for 34.55% (19/156) and ≥10 accounting for 20% of the cases (11/156). Clinicopathological data are summarized in Table I. The Chi-square test revealed that there was no correlation between axillary lymph node metastasis and the tumor size in the TNBC group (P=0.536, Table II).

Table I

Clinicopathological characteristics of patients with breast cancer according to tumor subgroup.

Table I

Clinicopathological characteristics of patients with breast cancer according to tumor subgroup.

Characteristics Total (n=972) Subgroup, n (%) P-value
TNBC (n=156) Non-TNBC (n=816)
Mean age at diagnosis (years) 51.7 51.5 0.943
Menopausal status (%) 0.887
Prior to menopause 416 68 (43.59) 348 (42.65)
Following menopause 556 88 (56.41) 468 (57.35)
Pathological type 0.995
Invasive ductal carcinoma 790 128 (82.05) 662 (81.13)
Invasive lobular carcinoma 57 9 (5.77) 48 (5.88)
Medullary carcinoma 51 8 (5.13) 43 (5.27)
Other 74 11 (7.05) 63 (7.72)
Tumor size (cm) 0.971
≤2 241 38 (24.36) 203 (24.88)
2–5 592 94 (60.26) 498 (61.03)
>5 139 24 (15.38) 115 (14.09)
Grade (%) 0.002
I–II 646 75 (48.08) 571 (69.98)
III 326 81 (51.92) 245 (30.02)
TNM stage 0.752
I 144 22 (14.10) 122 (14.95)
II 300 54 (34.62) 246 (30.15)
III–IV 528 80 (51.28) 448 (54.90)
Axillary lymph node status 0.009
Negative 534 109 (69.87) 425 (52.08)
Positive 438 47 (30.13) 391 (47.92)
Metastatic lymph nodes 0.891
1–3 206 25 (45.45) 181 (48.14)
4–9 139 19 (34.55) 120 (31.91)
≥10 86 11 (20.00) 75 (19.95)
Family history 0.969
Negative 883 141 (90.38) 742 (90.93)
Breast cancer 63 10 (6.41) 53 (6.50)
Other tumor 26 5 (3.21) 21 (2.57)

[i] TNBC, triple-negative breast cancer.

Table II

Association between lymph node metastasis and primary tumor size in the TNBC group.

Table II

Association between lymph node metastasis and primary tumor size in the TNBC group.

Lymph node metastasis
T n Positive Negative χ 2 P-value
T1 38 16 22 - -
T2 98 40 58 6.349 0.536
T3 20 14 6 - -
Total 156 70 86 - -

[i] TNBC, triple-negative breast cancer.

Recurrence and metastasis

In the TNBC group, a DFS was reported in 120 cases (76.92%), whereas 36 patients (36/156, 23.08%) developed recurrence and metastasis. Common distant metastatic sites were the lung, bone, brain, liver, supraclavicular lymph nodes and pleura. There were significant differences in the metastatic sites between the TNBC and non-TNBC groups (P<0.001). Compared with non-TNBC, TNBC patients exhibited a higher propensity for visceral and brain metastasis (42.11 vs. 6.25%) and a lower incidence of bone metastasis (15.79 vs. 62.50%). Related data are presented in Table III.

Table III

Recurrence or metastatic status of breast cancer patients according to tumor subgroup (TNBC vs. non-TNBC).

Table III

Recurrence or metastatic status of breast cancer patients according to tumor subgroup (TNBC vs. non-TNBC).

Subgroup, n (%)
Characteristics TNBC Non-TNBC Total (n) P-value
Recurrence or metastasis 0.866
Yes 36 (23.08) 180 (22.06) 216
No 120 (76.92) 636 (77.94) 756
Metastatic site <0.001
Bone 3 (15.79) 50 (62.50) 53
Lung 1 (5.26) 2 (2.50) 3
Liver 4 (21.05) 10 (12.50) 14
Brain 8 (42.11) 5 (6.25) 13
Other 1 (5.26) 7 (8.75) 8
Multiple 2 (10.53) 6 (7.50) 8

[i] TNBC, triple-negative breast cancer.

Survival analysis

The univariate Cox's regression analysis identified tumor subgroup (TNBC or non-TNBC) as an independent prognostic factor associated with 7-year DFS and OS. Furthermore, tumor size, TNM stage, axillary lymph node status and recurrence or metastasis were also found to exert a statistically significant effect on DFS and OS however, regarding other variables, including age, menstrual status, pathological type, tumor grade, number of metastatic lymph nodes, metastatic site and family history of breast cancer, there were no significant differences in DFS and OS (Table IV).

Table IV

Prognostic factors for disease-free survival and overall survival of breast cancer patients in univariate Cox regression analysis.

Table IV

Prognostic factors for disease-free survival and overall survival of breast cancer patients in univariate Cox regression analysis.

Disease-free survival Overall survival
Characteristics HR 95% CI P-value HR 95% CI P-value
Age (≤50 vs. >50 years) 1.029 0.697–1.521 0.884 1.028 0.695–1.519 0.891
Menopausal status (prior to vs. after) 1.016 0.684–1.509 0.937 1.017 0.685–1.511 0.933
Pathological type (invasive ductal carcinoma vs. other) 1.019 0.822–1.263 0.865 1.018 0.821–1.261 0.873
Tumor size (≤2 vs. >2 cm) 0.099 0.038–0.257 <0.0001 0.099 0.038–0.257 <0.0001
Grade (I–II vs. III) 1.202 0.804–1.798 0.371 1.198 0.801–1.792 0.379
TNM staging (I–II vs. III–IV) 1.374 1.024–1.841 0.034 1.371 1.023–1.838 0.035
Axillary lymph node status (negative vs. positive) 2.466 1.636–3.715 <0.0001 2.438 1.618–3.673 <0.0001
Metastatic lymph nodes (<4 vs. ≥4) 1.096 0.931–1.291 0.271 1.098 0.933–1.294 0.260
Recurrence or metastasis (yes vs. no) 0.639 0.420–0.972 0.036 0.642 0.422–0.976 0.038
Metastatic site (single vs. multiple) 0.976 0.784–1.215 0.828 0.976 0.784–1.215 0.825
Family history (positive vs. negative) 0.948 0.568–1.582 0.837 0.947 0.567–1.580 0.834
Tumor subgroups (TNBC vs. non-TNBC) 0.236 0.159–0.350 <0.0001 0.232 0.157–0.344 <0.0001

[i] HR, hazard ratio CI, confidence interval TNBC, triple-negative breast cancer.

To further analyze the possible factors affecting the prognosis of patients with breast cancer, the multifactor Cox proportional hazards regression model was used. The incorporated factors included tumor size, TNM stage, axillary lymph node status, tumor subgroups and metastatic or recurrence status. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor subgroup (TNBC or non-TNBC) was statistically significant in 7-year DFS and OS. Furthermore, tumor size and axillary lymph node status were independent prognostic factors for TNBC and non-TNBC (Table V).

Table V

Prognostic factors for disease-free survival and overall survival of breast cancer patients in multivariate Cox regression analysis.

Table V

Prognostic factors for disease-free survival and overall survival of breast cancer patients in multivariate Cox regression analysis.

Disease-free survival Overall survival
Characteristics HR 95% CI P-value HR 95% CI P-value
Tumor size (≤2 vs. >2 cm) 0.115 0.044–0.302 <0.0001 0.113 0.043–0.298 <0.0001
TNM stage (I–II vs. III–IV) 1.252 0.939–1.668 0.126 1.243 0.932–1.658 0.138
Axillary lymph node status (negative vs. positive) 2.897 1.897–4.423 <0.0001 2.859 1.873–4.362 <0.0001
Recurrence or metastasis (yes vs. no) 0.649 0.426–0.988 0.044 0.661 0.434–1.006 0.054
Tumor subgroups (TNBC vs. non-TNBC) 0.190 0.127–0.283 <0.0001 0.188 0.126–0.280 <0.0001

[i] HR, hazard ratio CI, confidence interval TNBC, triple-negative breast cancer.

The Kaplan-Meier survival curves are shown in Fig. 1. The DFS rate for TNBC patients was 98, 76, 67 and 64% in the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th years, respectively. The OS rate for TNBC patients was 97, 85, 72 and 68% in the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th years, respectively. DFS and OS rates were significantly lower in the TNBC compared to those in the non-TNBC group in the 3rd, 5th and 7th years however, in the 1st year, the DFS rate of the TNBC was higher compared with that in the non-TNBC group (98 vs. 95%).

Figure 1

Kaplan-Meier survival curves. (A) Disease-free survival (DFS) and (B) overall survival (OS) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and non-TNBC patients. Cens., censored.

Discussion

TNBC is a special subtype of breast cancer classified according to cell morphology and cell surface receptors. Patients with TNBC exhibit a poor prognosis due to its aggressive biological behavior and lack of effective treatment, as this type of cancer is insensitive to targeted and endocrine therapy. In order to improve the outcomes for TNBC patients, ongoing studies on TNBC are currently conducted clinically and experimentally. In this study, we selected a cohort of 972 patients in order to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of TNBC patients in China. The included patients were selected from two different hospitals in different cities, in order to enhance the reliability of our results.

Numerous studies have demonstrated that premenopausal African-American females were more prone to develop TNBC. Carey et al (11) reported that the morbidity rate of the TNBC subtype among African-American breast cancer patients <50 years old may be as high as 39%, whereas it is only 16% among Caucasian females and 14% among post-menopausal African females. In our study, 16.5% of the included patients had TNBC and it was demonstrated that age and menopausal status did not significantly affect the TNBC incidence in China, which is in accordance with the findings of previous studies, reporting that the prevalence of TNBC among non-African female breast cancer patients ranges between 10 and 17% and it is lower compared to that among pre-menopausal African females (12–14).

Kandel et al (15) demonstrated that the average tumor size of TNBC is 2 cm and 50% of TNBC patients develop lymph node metastases. With regard to pathological characteristics, this type of breast cancer may exhibit three histological grades. However, in the present study, we observed that a tumor size of 2–5 cm represented the largest percentage in the TNBC group and axillary lymph node metastases accounted for 30.13%. Histological grade III accounted for the largest percentage in the TNBC group (P=0.002). It is hypothesized that TNBC in China may differ from that encountered in other countries.

Haffty et al (16) reported that TNBC exhibits a higher proportion of positive family history of breast cancer. In this study, 10 of the 156 TNBC patients (6.41%) had a family history of breast cancer, which was not significantly higher when compared with the non-TNBC subgroup. Furthermore, single- and multifactor analyses did not suggest that TNBC was correlated with a family history of breast cancer. Zhang et al (17) reported that, in China, family history was not statistically different between the TNBC and non-TNBC groups (P=0.180), which is in agreement with our findings. Therefore, we may infer that triple-negative status is not associated with an increased hereditary risk in Chinese females.

The current investigation of the correlation between tumor size and lymph node metastasis has produced varying results. In a controlled study (13), it was suggested that TNBC exhibits a higher tendency for lymph node metastasis, compared to other types of breast cancer. By contrast, other studies have demonstrated that there is no difference in the frequency of lymph node metastasis in TNBC (12,16,18). In an investigation of 292 cases of breast cancer specimens, Haffty et al (16) suggested that tumor size was not associated with lymph node metastasis. In this study, for tumor sizes <2 cm, the lymph node metastatic rate was as high as 42.1%, whereas it was 70.0% for tumor sizes >5 cm (P>0.05). Therefore, tumor size was not found to correlate with lymph node metastasis, which is in agreement with several studies in China and abroad (12,16,18).

In the univariate Cox's regression analysis, our results indicated that tumor size, TNM stage, axillary lymph node status and recurrence or metastasis were prognostic factors for 7-year DFS and OS. Our multivariate Cox's regression analysis demonstrated that tumor size and axillary lymph node status were the main prognostic indicators for 7-year DFS and OS. These findings are in accordance with those of previous studies (8,19). Tumor subgroup (TNBC or non-TNBC) was identified as a significant prognostic factor of breast cancer in the univariate and multivariate survival analysis.

TNBC is prone to local recurrence and distant metastasis. Dent et al (13) observed that, in the 5th year of follow-up, the frequency of distant metastasis was significantly higher among TNBC compared to that among non-TNBC patients (33.9 and 22.4%, respectively) and the risk of distant metastasis was higher in the TNBC group (relative risk=2.6). There was a gradual increase in the risk of distant metastasis in the TNBC group, with a peak in the 2nd and 3rd years, followed by a rapid decline, with a lower risk in the 5th year and no distant metastasis in the 8th year of follow-up. In non-TNBC patients, the risk of distant metastasis during follow-up appeared to remain constant over the follow-up period. TNBC exhibits a propensity for organ-specific metastasis. Rakha et al (12)reported that TNBC is more likely to metastasize to the spinal cord, brain, meninges, liver and lungs, but rarely to the bones. A study conducted at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center also reported that TNBC was associated with a higher risk of visceral and a lower risk of bone metastases (20). TNBC has a higher risk of local recurrence or distant metastasis following the final diagnosis. This suggests that distant metastasis may exhibit a certain organ tendency in TNBC (21–23) and the specific target organ metastasis may be associated with its specific gene expression (24–26). Consistently, our study demonstrated that, compared to non-TNBC patients, TNBC patients had a higher propensity for visceral metastasis (liver, 21.05 and lung, 5.26%), as well as brain metastasis (42.11%), with a lower incidence of bone metastasis (15.79 vs. 62.50%).

The TNBC subgroup exhibited a more aggressive clinical course and a higher risk of recurrence and mortality when compared to the non-TNBC group, with a 5- and 7-year survival rate of 72 and 68%, respectively. Non-Hispanic females of African descent exhibited the worst prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of only 14%. Khan et al (20) reported that of 282 African-American female patients with a median age of 57 years, TNBC accounted for 30% of the cases. In this study, in the 1st year, the DFS rate for TNBCs was 98%, which was higher compared with that in the non-TNBC group. This may be attributed to the currently accepted view that TNBC appears to be more sensitive to chemotherapy compared to non-TNBC (27) thus, TNBC patients may achieve higher short-term DFS rates. However, TNBC patients have a worse OS (28) and tend to relapse sooner compared to patients with other breast cancer subtypes. This is mainly due to the shortened disease-free period rendering the tumor more aggressive. Yin et al (7) reported that, in multivariate analysis, TNBC exhibited a significantly increased recurrence rate within 2 years after surgery, which is inconsistent with our findings. TNBC patients have a worse 7-year DFS and OS compared to non-TNBC patients, with the risk of any recurrence increasing sharply from the date of diagnosis, peaking at 1–2 years and decreasing quickly thereafter, which was similar to the findings reported by Dent et al (13).

The Cox model regression analysis results revealed that axillary lymph node status was an independent prognostic factor for TNBC (P=0.001). Our results were in accordance with the majority of the previously published literature.

In conclusion, TNBC has its own unique clinical pathological and molecular characteristics. Due to the lack of specific treatment guidelines following surgery, despite the administration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the prognosis of TNBC patients remains poor. Efforts are currently focused on developing a specific therapy for TNBC. It was reported that TNBC may have a specific signal transduction pathway which is crucial in the occurrence and development of breast cancer (29–31), which may provide a novel approach for clinical treatment based on molecular markers and investigation of this specific pathway.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Professor Borong Pan, Outpatient Department of Oncology, Cancer Institute, Fourth Military Medical University (Xi'an, China), for offering advice regarding the modifications to this study.


Excels at Nothing

I was congratulating Breda last weekend on her open carry experience and said “Hey! We should have an open carry day and see how many people we can get to do it!” And so we touched base with Mike W., who has been OCing for a while, now. And I know there are a lot of others out there that just do it and don’t blog about it, because it’s just not a big deal once you get over that feeling that everyone is staring at you like they did in high school when you had that giant Cyclops zit on your forehead that popped up after your Algebra class and nobody told you about it. (Don’t tell me I was the only one. We didn’t have Pro-Active back in the old days.)

ANYHOW. June 5th (the first Sunday in June) has hereby been declared the first annual Open Carry Day for those that can do it. That's it. Just wear a gun, and go about your normal daily routine. The sight of regular people wearing a gun shouldn't be a big deal, and who better to normalize it than reasonably normal people? Report back with what happens. I’m hoping there will be a lot observations that “Person goes about their normal day with a gun and nothing happened!” It will turn into a non-event, which is exactly what open carrying should be.


Bitcoin Price Z-Score

The Bitcoin Price Z-Score can be calculated for each point in time (“i”) by subtracting the mean Bitcoin price up to that time (“mean(price[0:i])”) from the respective price (“price[i]”), and then dividing it by the standard deviation of the Bitcoin price up to that time (sd(price[0:i]).

z[i] = (price[i] — mean(price[0:i])) / sd(price[0:i])

The Bitcon Price Z-Scores therefore represent the number of standard deviations that the price of any time point differs from its own historical mean. Perhaps a more simplistic way to think about this is to consider the mean price to be a moving average. A moving average is the mean value over the previous time period (e.g., 7 days, 200 days, 1 year, etc.), that changes as the time period that is used to calculate the mean (the ‘moving window’) changes. Since we’re using Bitcoin’s entire price history in this calculation, this version of the Bitcoin Price Z-Score essentially looks at the relative difference between a Bitcoin price and its ‘infinite moving average’.

The Bitcoin Price Z-Score therefore can be useful as an indicator to determine how (ab)normal the Bitcoin price is in comparison to its own price history. The further away from the mean (a Z-Score of 0) a value is, the more abnormal it is based on its price history. The figure below shows a time series plot of this ‘infinite moving average’ version of the Bitcoin Price Z-Score. The striped green (Z-Score 1), orange (6) and red (11) lines were placed by the author because they visually appear to be interesting from a technical analysis perspective, and are thus arbitrary.

Thanks to the applied Z-Scores, the relative price changes during the past market cycles have become quite comparable. The first cycle was a bit different to the later cycles due to Bitcoin’s immaturity and short price history, but the 2013 double tops and the late 2017 market top have very similar Z-Scores of 11 to 12. Based on this chart, the abnormality of the Bitcoin price increase at the 2017 top was similar to that of the first 2013 top.

At the same time, the current November 2020 price rush to the near all time high (ATH) prices of that same late 2017 top yielded a much lower (

4) Z-Score than during that actual 2017 top (

12). This chart therefore illustrates that the current near-ATH prices are much less abnormal now than those same prices were in late 2017. You can therefore argue that the chart also implicitly visualizes a Lindy effect in the Bitcoin price the more time price spends at an increased price level, the more normal it becomes.

However, the gradually increasing bottoms are less ideal when you would also like to use this indicator to identify possible market bottoms. After December 22nd, 2011, the Bitcoin Price Z-Score actually never drops below 0 again, and the market bottoms of 2015 and 2018–2019 become slightly higher than the previous cycle every time so far.

Luckily, there’s a logical explanation and possible solution for this. Since we’re using all of Bitcoin’s previous price history as a comparison, that price history becomes longer at every time point, giving the previous values with lower prices more and more weight in the equation that we’re using here. As can be seen in the logarithmic price chart below, Bitcoin’s price also tends to move away from the ‘infinite moving average’ (red line) that we’re using here.

Unfortunately, this chart did spoil the solution to our problem using a 4-year moving average window might be more appropriate. The Bitcoin software programmatically halves the new coin issuance that is given to miners as a reward for their efforts when a new blocks is found every 210.000 blocks (the striped vertical lines), which happens roughly every four years (210.000 blocks *10 minutes per block = 2.100.000 minutes, 2.100.000/60/24/7/52 = 4.00641 years). As a result, a periodically repeating supply shock is introduced, which has been followed up by a parabolic price increase every time so far.

Although it is tricky to conclude that that the halvings indeed caused these

4-year cycles based on such a small sample (n=2.125), a good case can be made that it is more appropriate to use the 4-year moving average when calculating the Bitcoin Price Z-Score. The figure below therefore uses the same method as before to calculate the Z-Scores, but with a tweak: it uses the to-date-available data the first four years, and only uses the 4-year moving window data after that. The code that was used for this calculation (as well as all other analyses described in this article) are available on GitHub.

As expected, the market bottoms are now more comparable, with each cycle bottoming out around the 4-year moving average (a Z-Score of 0 the green line). The last time this version of the Bitcoin Price Z-Score was below zero was on March 16th, 2020, which was the day after the Covid19 global market panic, where Bitcoin’s price crashed by

50% in two days. The 2017 market top is now slightly less abnormal in comparison to the 2013 double tops, but the 2011 market top is more similar to the others. Intuitively, these proportions seem to be more appropriate than those in the initial version.

As mentioned before, the colored lines in the chart were arbitrarily chosen because they appear to be related to previous market cycle tops. This chart and method have no predictive powers and there are no guarantees that the Bitcoin Price Z-Scores will necessarily reach any level again in the future. However, if you assume that the 4-year cycles will repeat, it is possible to calculate what current-day prices would be needed to reach those Z-Scores:

  • Yellow line (Z-Score 6): $38.220,88
  • Orange line (Z-Score 8): $50.961,17
  • Red line (Z-Score 11): $70.071,60

However, it is unrealistic to expect the Bitcoin price to move towards those levels overnight. If the Bitcoin price is indeed to reach those levels, a more likely scenario is that it gradually increases towards those levels, possibly with a parabolic rise to reach the actual market top like it did during the previous cycles. In such a scenario, these predicted price levels will also gradually increase over time and need to be recalculated using that future data.

Since the use of Z-Scores improves the comparability between the cycles and we assume that those 4-year cycles are related to the halving events, it might be interesting to assess to what extent the price developments of those cycles are indeed similar. To do so, the figure below overlays the price developments of the Bitcoin Price Z-Scores of each halving epoch.

The first epoch was clearly quite different from the others. Since Bitcoin’s inception on January 3rd, 2009, it took over 1.5 years before the first US dollar price was captured — at least in the freely available Coinmetrics Community data that was used here. Aside from the obvious fact that the newly-born Bitcoin network needed a bit of time to mature and develop an actual market, the lack of price history in those early days itself also provides a clear statistical reason why it was relatively hard to get high Z-Scores there. After four years (

1.5 years into the 2nd epoch), this is no longer an issue, since a 4-year moving window was used after that. Therefore, particularly the third and this fourth epoch will be optimally comparable.

The second, third, and so far this start of the fourth epoch are actually relatively similar. As can be seen in the chart, the current Z-Score (right end of the purple line) is really close to the Z-Scores of the 203 day post-halving Z-Scores of the previous two cycles. Bitcoin’s current price developments therefore appear to be in line with those of the previous cycles so far.

Update 15–12–2020: This indicator has been rebranded as ‘Bitcoin Price Temperature (BPT)’ and expanded upon by using it as a color-overlay on the regular price chart, making it an ideal ‘thermometer’ to visually assess to what extent current prices are (over)heated or (under)cooled based on a 4-year time window. Additonally, the concept of BPT Bands was added. The more detailed follow-up article is available here.

Disclaimer: This article was written for entertainment purposes only and should not be taken as investment advice.

The indicators that were introduced in this article are free to be replicated, used and expanded opon by others, as long as the author of and/or the link to this article is referred to. The code used for the charts and analyses in this article are publicly available on GitHub.


Watch the video: : Πώς τιμούμε στην Πράξη τον Κυβερνήτη u0026 το 1821 ; Κέρκυρα, - (January 2022).