Information

Athens, Greece: Ancient Acropolis and Agora


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More info about travel to Athens: http://www.ricksteves.com/europe/greece/athens Crowned by the mighty Parthenon temple, the Acropolis rises above modern Athens; a lasting testament to Greece's glorious golden age. The Acropolis was the center of ritual and ceremony, and the religious heart of the city. The marketplace at its base is Agora, and was the hub of commercial, political and social life.

At http://www.ricksteves.com, you'll find money-saving travel tips, small-group tours, guidebooks, TV shows, radio programs, podcasts, and more on this destination.


Athens, Greece: Ancient Acropolis and Agora - History

Marvel at the wonders of the Greek Golden Age of the fifth century BC, starring the Parthenon temple on the Acropolis (the religious center), the ruined Agora (commercial center), and the Temple of Hephaestus (one of the best-preserved Greek temples anywhere).

YEAR PRODUCED
2007

CATALOG NUMBER
508.1

Complete Video Script

We'll start up there, at the historic, cultural, and literal high point of any trip to Athens — the Acropolis.

Like other hilltop sights in the ancient Greek world, Athens' Acropolis (or "high city") was both a place of worship and of refuge when under attack. Crowned by the mighty Parthenon temple, the Acropolis rises above modern Athens, a lasting testament to Greece's glorious Golden Age in the fifth century BC.

Grand processions followed the Panathenaic Way, which was a ceremonial path connecting the town below and the Acropolis. They’d pass through this imposing entryway and up to the religious heart of the city and the Parthenon.

The Parthenon was perhaps the finest temple in the ancient world. Valiantly battling the acidic air of our modern world, it still stands with the help of on-going restoration work.

It was constructed in the fifth century BC and dedicated to the virgin goddess Athena. Seeing it today is awe-inspiring but imagine how striking it must have looked when it was completed nearly 2,500 years ago — in all its carved and brilliantly painted splendor.

The adjacent Erechtheion is famous for its Porch of the Caryatids, six beautiful maidens functioning as columns. Dedicated to Athena and Poseidon, this was one of the most important religious buildings on the Acropolis. This, rather than the Parthenon, was the culmination of the Panatheniac Procession.

At the foot of the Acropolis, the Ancient Agora or marketplace sprawls out from its surviving temple. This is where, for 3,000 years, Athenians gathered.

While the Acropolis was the center of ritual and ceremony, the agora was the beating heart of ancient Athens. For some 800 years, starting in the sixth century BC, this was the hub of commercial, political, and social life.

Visitors wander the remains of what was the city's principal shopping mall and administrative center. Exploring the agora, it's fascinating to ponder the world of Plato and Aristotle and the age which laid the foundations for Western thinking about economics, democracy, logic, and more.

The Stoa of Attalos, from the second century BC, was rebuilt in modern times to house the Agora's museum. With so little of the Agora still standing, this reconstruction makes it easier to imagine the sight in its original glory. Crowds would gather in shady porticos like this to shop, socialize, or listen to the great philosophers of the age.

In fact, Socrates spent much of his life right here preaching the virtues of "nothing in excess," and urging those around him to "know thyself."

The Temple of Hephaestus, one of the best-preserved and most typical of all Greek temples, dates from about 400 BC. Like the Parthenon it's constructed in the simple Doric style. It housed big bronze statues of Hephaestus, the blacksmith god, and Athena, patroness of the city.

Greek architecture evolved in stages. The capitals, or tops of the columns, were both functional and decorative. While just the tip of the architectural iceberg, these are handy indicators helping us identify the three main architectural "orders" (or styles).

The earliest style, Doric, has flat, practical plates as capitals. In the next order, Ionic, the capitals are decorated with understated scrolls. The final order, Corinthian — popular later on with the Romans — features leafy capitals… boldly decorative with no apologies necessary.

How to remember all these? As the orders evolve, they gain syllables: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian.

But for most travelers, the agora is more than an architectural review. Strolling in the footsteps of Socrates is your best opportunity to commune with the epic Greek past.

Like so many great civilizations, ancient Greece peeked and then faded. Two hundred years ago, Athens was just a small town surrounded by big ruins, sitting on lots of history. That 19th-century Athens is today's Plaka.

The Plaka district provides tourists with a more intimate Athens: no chaotic traffic, lots of colorful restaurants, and the best souvenir shopping in all of Greece.


Agora of Athens

To the north of the Acropolis stands the great Agora (square): it was a meeting place for citizens, a large, open space full of buildings and people.

The entrance to the square was located off the street leading from the Dipylon Necropolis.

The agora originally occupied a larger area than the current archeological site. The metropolitan line to Piraeus and the Odhos Adrianou cut through the public area, which extended beneath what is now a built-up area, to the north of the modern road.

On the north side of the agora stood the stoa Poikile (painted), so called after the paintings by Polygnotos which it contained, depicting scenes of mythic battles (between Athenians and Amazons, and between Greeks and Trojans), and also historical ones, such as the Battle of Marathon, and the stoa of the Herms, which is so called because the surrounding area was occupied by a large number of herms (ithyphallic half-figures of Hermes, ie represented with a large erect phallus).


Photo credits by Min Zhou under CC-BY-2.0

On the West side of the agora there were several public buildings: the stoa of Zeus Eleutherios, protector of freedom the Temple of Apollo Patroos, the place where the births of Athenian citizens were registered the Metroon, the sanctuary of the Mother of the Gods the Bouleuterion, a rectangular area with a central cavea which seated those participating in the Assembly of the Five Hundred, the bouleutai (councillors elected to represent the tribes).

Before the Metroon, on a long marble pedestal, there were the bronze statues of the ten “eponymous” heroes, those who gave their names to the ten tribes of Attica. On the façade of this pedestal there were wooden boards where all the official laws and notices were displayed.

Further to the south the square was closed by another big stoa, known as the South stoa, built partly in the late Classical period and partly in the Hellenistic age.

To the mid-second century BC, the agora was closed on its east side by the stoa of Attalos, a portico about 116 metres long, containing shops built on two storeys, with a double portico in the middle of the facade is the marble base upon which stood a bronze statue depicting the quadriga (four-horse chariot) of Attalos II King of Pergamon, who had the monument built at his own expense.

The stoa of Attalos has been rebuilt by the archaeologists of the American School, and it currently houses the Agora Museum.

During the Roman period, the central area of the square is occupied by the big Odeion of Agrippa, a building for concerts, erected at the end of the I st century BC. by Agrippa, Augustus son-in-law.


Photo credits by Janmad under GFDL.

A big square hall contained a cavea for an audience of about a thousand, the orchestra and the stage building. The entrance consisted of a propylon through which were two long entrance halls the building was surrounded by a large colonnade.

On the West side of the agora is the hill known as the Kolonos Agoraios, upon which stands the temple known as the Hephaisteion (Temple of Hephaistos) it is also referred to as the Theseion, a Doric peripteral with six columns across its short sides and thirteen down its long ones.

The temple, built in the mid V th century BC, is perfectly preserved, still bearing the sculpted decorations of its Doric frieze: the metopes on the east facade depict the Labours of Herakles, and those on the long sides the Labours of Theseus.

An Ionic frieze proceeding along the inside walls of the pronaos and opisthodomos also survives. This represents Centaurs and Lapiths and scenes from the myth of Theseus.

Do you want to know more about the Agora, the Acropolis and the history of Athens?

Check out our guidebook to Athens, with detailed history and Past & Present images of the Acropolis, the Parthenon, the Propylaea and all the greatest historical and archaeological sites of the greek city.


Contents

  1. Peristyle Court
  2. Mint
  3. South-east Fountain House
  4. Aiakeion
  5. Boundary stone (Old Bouleuterion)
  6. New Bouleuterion (Hephaestion) (Royal stoa)

Other notable monuments Edit

A number of other notable monuments were added to the agora. Some of these included:

  • The Middle stoa which was the most extensive monument built during the 100s BCE. [3]
  • A small Roman temple was added in front of the Middle stoa.
  • An Altar of Zeus Agoraios was added just to the east of the Monument to the Eponymous Heroes. [4]
  • The Temple of Ares, dedicated to Ares, the god of war, was added in the north half agora, just south of the Altar of the Twelve Gods. [5]
  • The Odeon of Agrippa and accompanying gymnasium were added in the centre of the agora. [6]
  • The substantial Stoa of Attalos was built along the eastern edge of the agora. [7]
  • A collection of buildings were added to the south-east corner: the East stoa, the Library of Pantainos, the Nymphaeum and a temple.
  • The Library of Pantainos was more than just a library, the west and north wings were series of rooms that were used for other purposes other than storing books. With the construction of the Library of Pantainos, the official entrance into the agora was now between the Library and the Stoa of Attalos. [8]
  • There is evidence of a Synagogue in the Agora of Athens in the 3rd century.
  • A statue of the Roman emperor Hadrian was located near the metroon. [9]
  • The Temple of Zeus Phratrios and Athena Phratria dated to the 300s BCE and is located near the Temple of Apollo Patroos. [10]
  • The south end of what is believed to be a Basilica has been uncovered near Hadrian Street and is dated to the mid 100s CE [11]
  • The Monopteros was located south of the Basilica and also dated to the mid 100s CE It had no walls, was a dome supported by columns and was about 8 meters in diameter. [12]
  • The Bema was a speakers platform and was located near the Stoa of Attalos. [13]

The ancient Athenian agora has been excavated by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA) since 1931 under the direction of T. Leslie Shear, Sr. [14] The excavation was negotiated and directed by the ASCSA's chair of the agora excavation committee, Edward Capps, who the school would honor with a memorial overlooking the project. [15] [16] [17] They continue to the present day, now under the direction of John McK Camp.

After the initial phase of excavation, in the 1950s the Hellenistic Stoa of Attalos was reconstructed on the east side of the agora, and today it serves as a museum and as storage and office space for the excavation team. [18]

A virtual reconstruction of the Ancient Agora of Athens has been produced through a collaboration of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and the Foundation of the Hellenic World, which had various output (3d video, VR real-time dom performance, Google Earth 3d models). [19]

Flora Edit

Evidence of planting was discovered during the excavations and in January 4, 1954 the first oak and laurel trees were planted around the Altar of Zeus by Queen Frederika and King Paul as part of the efforts to restore the site with plants that would have been found there in antiquity. [20]

The museum is housed in the Stoa of Attalos, and its exhibits are connected with the Athenian democracy. The collection of the museum includes clay, bronze and glass objects, sculptures, coins and inscriptions from the 7th to the 5th century BC, as well as pottery of the Byzantine period and the Turkish occupation. The exhibition within the museum contains work of art which describes the private and public life in ancient Athens. In 2012, new sculpture exhibition was added to the museum which includes portraits from Athenian Agora excavation. The new exhibition revolves around portraits of idealized gods, officially honored people of the city, wealthy Roman citizens of the 1st and 2nd century AD, 3rd-century citizens and finally on work of art from private art schools of late antiquity. [21]


Athens Ancient Agora

How much time is recommended to tour the Ancient Agora? Your firsthand experiences and advice will be very helpful. Our main interest is to see the historic sites but sadly our time in Athens will be brief. Normally in Rick Steves' guidebooks such recommendations are listed but not so for the Agora in his Greece guide, so your guidance will be appreciated.

Thank you,
Keith and Victoria

When we did it, we were in no hurry, so took 3-4 hours.
Also it was July and well into the 90s so a fast pace was inadvisable.

We took about the same amount of time last June experiencing the same 90's temperatures.

It very much depends upon YOU, and what prep you do beforehand. Agree on what you want to see & how much time . the Agora Museum (in the beautiful reconstructed Stoa of Attalos) can be traversed swiftly, but do not miss the thrill of seeing the actual "oistrakh votes" -- this is from the annual process where citizens voted on which people to Exile for a spell (for evildoing or just for controversy) they scratched the names on pottery shards (Oistratkh, thus "ostracize") . u can see shards with scratchings of "Socrates" and "Aristophanes". The RS "step by step" instrux in guidebook, or the FREE audio downloads will help.

So much depends on what you are interested in . . . how much you go to Greece for archeological/historic sites. The Agora is just below the Acropolis and was the main gathering place for ancient Greeks, business, government, shopping, chariot racing, debating, and so much more.

I have been to the Agora several times and still go back. It's quite an experience to wander around the ground that Socrates, Aristotle, Pericles and so many ancient Greeks walked. While there is not a whole lot left to see other than foundations, walls, and a few columns here or there the Temple to Hephaestus is in even better condtion than the Parthenon on the Acropolis. It's just a very lovely area, quiet, peaceful and you can almost forget you are in a city of millions.

You can spend an hour, two hours, or many hours just wandering around. Don't overlook the re-created Stoa that will give you an idea of what it was like 2,500 years ago. Very cool and relaxing to step inside out of the hot sun. Nice museum and a good place to hang out, catch your breath and then move on.

A once-in-a-lifetime place to spend time and a good way to learn about Ancient Greece!

Just a slightly different thought process. I assume that you will want to do the Acropolis on your visit. We arrive just before opening and get our tickets. Or you can use that time to visit Mars hill or even better Philoppas hill where you can look down on the acropolis. When it opens we generally have about an hour to an hour and a half with few crowds around. Its a quiet time and you can see it at your leisure. When the crowds arrive leave and go down to the Ancient Agora. The crowds will be at the Acropolis and the Agora will be relatively uncrowded for the three or so hours you will need for the visit.
Images of Athens
Athens http://www.flickr.com/photos/stanbr54/sets/72157632121475515/

I will add that if you want to experience the Acropolis in a peaceful, tranquil and less over-the-top touristy/tourist group atmosphere get there when it opens at 8 a.m. or very late in the afternoon after the tour groups and tourists have left.

I would recommend early morning which is very nice. I even got to see the Greek Army raising the Greek flag and singing the Greek National Anthem then marching off.

It's an all together different atmosphere and you won't have to deal with pushy, shoving and elbowing tourists getting in your way for photo ops or just sight seeing!

My suggestion is to spend as much time as you have available for it. One hour, two hours, or ?? Just wander around and be in awe of the history. Regardless of how little the time is available, you really have to go. In my opinion it is not to be missed.

Thanks to everyone for your replies, suggestions and information.

Please allow me to explain further why I posted my question. For planning purposes (so we can squeeze in as much as possible during the time we have in Athens) I was hoping people would share their experience time-wise at the Agora. How much time was spent and perhaps if it was felt that the time spent was sufficient. Yes, everyone is different, but my hope was—if several people shared the time they allotted I could make a guess as to how much time I should plan for. (And I am one who believes when it comes to travel you cannot plan enough or collect too much information prior to your trip.)

We are traveling to Greece to see the country’s ancient treasures. I am fortunate to be able to finally visit the historic sites I have read about my entire life.


Userful Tips

Summer period (1st April - 31st October)

  • Full ticket: 28€
  • Reduced ticket: 14€
  • Combo ticket: 30€
  • Under 18 years: Free

Winter period (1st November - 31st March)

  • Full ticket: 14€
  • Reduced ticket: 14€
  • Combo ticket: 30€
  • Under 18 years: Free

The Acropolis tickets can be purchased either at the Acropolis’ main entrance ticket booth, or at the Acropolis south slope ticket booth, or online via etickets.tap.gr, or via email [email protected] by choosing one of my skip the ticket-line tours.

The Combo ticket is valid for 5 days and secures one visit to each of the archaeological sites below, and can be purchased at the entrance of any of those sites: Acropolis of Athens (main entrance), South Slopes of the Acropolis and Theater of Dionysos, North slopes of the Acropolis, Ancient Greek Agora of Athens, Hadrian’s Library, Roman Agora, Temple Of Olympian Zeus, Archaeological Site of Lykeion, Kerameikos

Eligible for Acropolis reduced tickets (10€) are: Greek and EU citizens over 65 years old, upon presentation of their ID card or passport for verification of their age and country of origin. Students from outside the European Union, upon presentation of their student ID cards.

Eligible for Acropolis free ticket are: People with disabilities (67 % or over) and one escort, upon presentation of the certification of disability issued by the Ministry of Health or a medical certification from a public hospital, where the disability and the percentage of disability are clearly stated. Students of EU University upon presentation of their student identity card. Young people, up to the age of 18, upon presentation of their Identity Card or passport for age confirmation.


Other Buildings in the Athenian Acropolis

The Parthenon was one of many significant buildings at the Acropolis which was commissioned by the Athenian general Pericles during the Golden Age of Athens in 460 BC to 430 BC.

The Erechtheion was another temple built under Pericles, this time dedicated to both Athena and Poseidon. The temple is remarkably preserved today, and it is most famous for the ‘Porch of the Caryatids’.

The porch is supported by six columns in the form of six beautiful women in draped clothing. Today, the Acropolis has a replica of the porch while five of the Caryatids are on display at the Acropolis Museum. The sixth was removed by the Earl of Elgin and is still kept at the British Museum in London.

The Propylaea at the Athenian Acropolis was also ordered by Pericles. It was a grand entrance to the city made of marble, with impressive columns which are designed to mimic those on the Parthenon. The Propylaea was a point where people were vetted before they could enter the Sanctuary (holy part) of Athens.
This was to prevent any criminals or fugitives from entering. Although the Propylaea is not considered an iconic building to many people today, to the people living in Athens at the time it was built, it served a very important function and would have been extremely important to them.

The Theatre of Dionysus Eleuthereus was an enormous open-air theater which could seat up to 17,000 people. It is considered to be the first theater in the world, and it was carved into the southern cliff face of the Acropolis.

Remains of the Theatre of Dionysus, Athens Acropolis. (Dronepicr / CC BY-SA 2.0 )

It was used as a theater since the 6th century BC but the remains at the site today reflect a later Roman renovation of the theater. It was named for the god Dionysus as plays were one of the many things he was a patron of.

Further entertainment could be found in the Odeon, an enormous structure supported by ninety pillars which was built next to the Theatre of Dionysus. It was intended to stage musical contests for an event held in Athens which was said to rival the Olympics in popularity. The Odeon at the Acropolis was a covered building so people attending would be protected from any potential rain.

At the foot of the Acropolis was an area called the agora which was a sprawling marketplace. The agora was the meeting place for the Athenian people for 3,000 years - rather than being at the heart of ritual and religion, the agora was the center of everyday life in ancient Athens. It was the hub of political, social, and commercial life in the city.

Although the agora is not as well preserved as the grand buildings of the main Acropolis, it is still a site visited by hundreds of thousands of people every year who are looking to gain a closer insight into the world of philosophers like Plato and Aristotle who laid the groundwork for modern Western thinking.


A Place For Socialisation

The word agora in Greek means “assembly place”.

The magnificent Stoa of Attalos would have once contained rows of shops where Athenians would go about their daily duties, sheltered from the harsh rays of the sun. The Agora would have been a sight to see, electric with activity, as people bought their groceries, haggled on prices and completed every aspect of business that needed to be taken care of. They could even watch a show at the Odeon of Agrippa.

Here, ancient Athenians also gathered to socialize. Socrates was even said to stop passers-by and question them on the meaning of life! The pillars of the stoa were recreated with their original structure, with fluting of the columns only beginning above six feet, inviting people to lean against them and chat.

☞ Related: Learn More About Socrates And Other Greek Philosophers


ATHENS' ANCIENT HISTORY Experience the histories of democracy, Western civilization and philosophy firsthand

To view the Parthenon and Erechtheum on the Acropolis, or the Agora, or the city’s wealth of museum treasures is to experience some of the supreme expressions of Western culture.

Sights in ancient Greece and Athens, especially, take on a larger importance than in most other places in the world. They are histories of democracy, Western civilization and philosophy firsthand. You can’t help but walk around the Parthenon and the rest of the Acropolis and dream about the great ones who have come before you and whose footsteps you’re in.

The Acropolis

Mention Athens, and most people will think of the Acropolis. In spite of the ravages of weather and pollution, it remains a great experience for visitors. One cannot help being moved by the grandeur of its setting and architecture.
In 480 B.C., the Persians destroyed the Acropolis. Later, beginning in 447 B.C., the Athenians buried much of what remained and rebuilt it as it now stands: Propylaea, Parthenon, Erechtheum, Temple of Athena Nike. Subsequent additions by the Franks and Turks have been removed, permitting visitors to get a better impression of what it was like in its classical form.

The new Acropolis Museum is a purpose built museum by architect Bernard Tschumi, to house the archeological findings related to the Acropolis Hill located in the historical area of Makriyianni, south east of the Rock of the Acropolis. Only 300 meters from the Acropolis and approximately 2 kilometers from Syntagma Square, Athens main city square and public transport hub, the Museum is directly linked to the Athens Metro by the Acropolis Station, located on the eastern border of the Museum.

And Beyond

You’ll also find many other important ruins in the vicinity of the Acropolis. The Plaka is Athens’ old section. There you can see Hadrian’s Library, the Lysicrates Monument, the Tower of the Winds, and many interesting old houses. Also Hadrian’s Arch and the columns left standing from the Temple of Olympian Zeus. Mt. Lycabettus is also near the Acropolis. About 1000 feet high. Crowned by the Church of St. George. Provides a marvelous view of the area.

Below the Acropolis, the Central Food Market brims with stalls piled high with strawberries and broccoli in spring or peppers and zucchini in summer. Out front, temporary stalls sell nuts, dried figs and Greek honey–that favorite staple of the Olympian gods.

Constitution Square. Government buildings, the Royal Palace and gardens, the Stadium and many sidewalk cafes. Watch the famous Evzones and the changing of the guard that happens every hour on the hour. Two Byzantine churches worth seeing: the Kapnikarea and Aghios Eletherios. Both built in the 11th century.


Top 8 Facts about the Ancient Agora of Athens

The Ancient Agora of Athens is found between Monastiraki and the Acropolis. There is a train running through it but the site has not been damaged.

The Name Agora means market place. It is characterized by scattered piles of rocks and wall ruins. These are the remains of what used to be trading stalls.

Some buildings and shrines acted like the lifeline of ancient Greece. Notable Greek philosophers used to meet here such as Socrates, Pericles, Plato among others.

Ancient Agora has several interesting things to see. These sites and archaeological ruins are the basis of the following top 10 facts.

1. Ancient Agora used to have private houses

When the Agora was first built, it had private houses. This did not last long because Peisistratus destroyed them in the 6 th century BC.

He instead built his residence inside the Agora and closed the wells that supplied people with water. The Agora soon became the administrative centre for his government.

Peisistratus also constructed a drainage system, fountains and a temple for the Olympia gods. In centuries that followed, the Athenians planted trees at the Agora.

They also added public buildings and the temple of Hephaestus.

Other than being the administrative centre and residential area, the Agora acted as a market place.

2. This used to be the meeting place for the elite in ancient Greece

During the classical antiquities of Athens, the Agora was a popular meeting place. It was considered as the centre for democracy.

The city council, council presidents and magistrates, all met at the Ancient Angora. It was also the venue for the law courts.

Most of the buildings at the Agora were destroyed by the Persians during the siege of Athens. The Athenians were however resilient and rebuilt the Agora. It became the residential place for the Romans.

The other group of elites that met at the Agora were Sophocles, Socrates and Protagoras. Ordinary citizens also mingled with their peers.

There was a sense of freedom, justice and social conscience of the people. The buildings were also used as theatres, gymnasium, educational and political purposes.

3. Several buildings were brought down during the excavation of the site

To preserve this historical site, several buildings that were built in the area were brought down.

The Greek government bought all the buildings that were marked for demolition. They then commissioned the American School of Classical Studies with the excavation.

The area marked for excavation was about 24 acres and had more than 365 modern houses.

A large part of the Agora was revealed during the construction of the Athens-Piraeus railway in 1890.

The excavation is said to be one of the most productive archaeological projects. More than 40 scholarly works on the artefacts and other findings have been published.

4. The most well-preserved Temple in Greece is found at the Ancient Agora

Within the Ancient Agora is a temple that is one of the most well preserved. The temple of Hephaestus is the best-preserved ancient temple in Greece.

There is another one known as the Stoa of Attalus, this was recently renovated. it used to be a market that was constructed by the King Attalus of Pergamus.

The Stoa is now a museum and has several interesting exhibits that were excavated from the Agora.

The temple was built in honour of Hephaestus, its construction is said to have been about the same time the Parthenon was built.

Later, the temple was turned into a church dedicated to Saint George in the 7 th century.

It was used as the cemetery for protestants and European philhellenes who died in the Greek War of Independence in 1821.

5. It was here that Socrates was sentenced to death

By Jacques-Louis David – Wikimedia

Athens’s best-known philosopher, Socrates was one of the regulars at the Agora. He would be spotted at the Agora with his disciples in tow.

In 399 BC, he was accused of corrupting the youth as well as promoting idolatry. His punishment was death.

The jurors who determined his fate were all male who had been chosen through a cast lot.

Socrates chose not to run but spent his last days in the company of his friends and students.

On the day of his execution, he was handed a cup of hemlock, the fatal drink, which he drank.

6. Stoa of Attalos at the Ancient Angora has exhibitions of ancient Greece

There is one structure that one cannot miss while at the Agora. It is the Stoa of Attalos.

This building was built by King Attalos of Pergamon in Asia minor. It was renovated in the 1950s by American archaeologists.

The building is currently a museum and has artefacts that are more than 5,000 years old.

Some of the interesting artefacts that can be found in this museum are including sculpture, a voting machine, and a child’s potty seat

In ancient times, the Stoa of Attalos was the meeting place for several people. There were several shops.

Some of the items excavated from this site are more than 160,000 years old, others are from the 19 th century.

A tour of the museum will introduce you to the permanent exhibitions on the upper floor of the stoa. The exhibits are from the late Classical, Hellenistic and Roman periods

7. The Ancient Agora was home to several traders

Retail traders were the middlemen between the craftsmen and the consumer at the Agora.

They were not the favourite of many since they were believed to be cunning.

Aristotle said that they served a kind of exchange which is justly censured. He found it to an unnatural mode by which men unfairly gain from one another.

The Agora had confectioners who made pastries and sweets, slave traders, fishmongers, vintners, cloth merchants, shoemakers, dressmakers, and jewellery purveyors.

There was a separate potter’s market that was for buying and selling cookware. This section of the market was frequented by women.

8. It is not the same as Roman Agora

The Roman Agora was filled with commodities such as silk and other sheer fabrics. It was frequented by women who shopped for the groceries.

There was a law that was passed that encouraged modesty among the women in Rome. Most of the women in Rome at the time wore sheer fabric to public events.

The law applied to both men and women. Another group of people that loved the market place were Latin writers.

They drew inspiration from the behaviour of the people at the market.

Lilian

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Watch the video: Η Αρχαία Αγορά της Αθήνας- (December 2021).